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We report here the molecular characterisation of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY1 gene, which is a critical sporophytic controlling factor for anther and pollen development. Homozygous ms1 mutants do not produce viable pollen, but are otherwise phenotypically normal. Degeneration of pollen occurs soon after microspore release from the tetrads, at which time(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is part of a group of evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors involved in the activation of the immune system in response to various pathogens and in the innate defense against infection. We describe here the cloning and characterization of the avian orthologue of mammalian TLR4. Chicken TLR4 encodes a(More)
Powdery mildew of barley, caused by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, is a model system for investigating the mechanism of gene-for-gene interaction between large-genome cereals and obligate-fungal pathogens. A large number of loci that confer resistance to this disease are located on the short arm of chromosome 5(1H). The Mla resistance-gene cluster is(More)
Human chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a chitinolytic enzyme with suggested anti-fungal properties. Previous studies have suggested that chitotriosidase may also protect individuals against filarial nematode infections and malaria. A mutant allele, which renders chitotriosidase unstable and enzymatically inactive, is found at a frequency of >20% in Caucasians and(More)
The non-integrin laminin receptor (LAMR1/RPSA) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) are multi-functional host molecules with roles in diverse pathological processes, particularly of infectious or oncogenic origins. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and confocal imaging, we demonstrate that the two proteins homo- and heterodimerize, and that each isotype(More)
Chitotriosidase is a chitinolytic enzyme expressed by maturing macrophages and preformed in neutrophil granules, suggesting a role in antimicrobial defence. Although available evidence supports a role in anti-fungal immunity, there is a lack of an obvious phenotype in humans homozygous for a mutation which renders chitotriosidase inactive. This may be(More)
OBJECTIVES Caspofungin, currently used as salvage therapy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), strangely only causes morphological changes in fungal growth in vitro but does not inhibit the growth. In vivo it has good efficacy. Therefore the question arises how this in vivo activity is reached. Caspofungin is known to increase the amount of chitin in(More)
BACKGROUND The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication(More)
The approach of partial restriction mapping and vector hybridisation has been used to restriction map and align six yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) corresponding to the top arm (approximately 27.9 centiMorgans, cM) of Arabidopsis chromosome 5 and confirm the chimeric nature of a further four clones which map to this region. The restriction endonucleases(More)
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