Shashank Raina

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BACKGROUND Impact forces experienced by the upper limb at the beginning of each wheelchair propulsion (WCP) cycle are among the highest forces experienced by wheelchair users. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the magnitude of hand/forearm velocity prior to impact and effectiveness of rim impact force are dependent on the type of hand trajectory pattern(More)
Repetitive loading of the upper extremity musculature during activities like wheelchair propulsion can lead to fatigue of surrounding musculature causing irregular segment kinematics. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of increase in load on the kinematics of the scapula in users with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Data were collected on 18(More)
Sit-to-stand movements are a fundamental daily activity and a prerequisite to upright posture. Previous simulations of spinal cord injured individuals using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) suggested a forward foot placement would reduce hand-support forces. However, this recommendation has proved to be difficult for able-bodied individuals(More)
After spinal cord injury (SCI), intact lower motor neurons can be electrically activated to produce functional muscular contractions and enhance one's capabilities beyond seated activities. Even with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), significant amounts of hand-support forces are commonly required to move from a sitting to standing position. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Repetitive loading of the upper limb joints during manual wheelchair (WC) propulsion (WCP) has been identified as a factor that contributes to shoulder pain, leading to loss of independence and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine how individual manual WC users with paraplegia modify propulsion mechanics to(More)
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