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We have identified recessive overproliferation mutations by screening and examining clones of mutant cells in genetic mosaics of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. This type of screen provides a powerful approach for identifying and studying potential tumor suppressors. One of the identified genes, lats, has been cloned and encodes a putative protein(More)
Hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death, is frequently associated with plant disease resistance. It has been proposed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades regulate HR cell death based on pharmacological studies by using kinase inhibitors. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that NtMEK2, a MAPK(More)
The Arabidopsis genome encodes approximately 20 different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are likely to be involved in growth, development and responses to endogenous and environmental cues. Several plant MAPKs are activated by a variety of stress stimuli, including pathogen infection, wounding, temperature, drought, salinity, osmolarity, UV(More)
The rice Xa21 gene confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae in a race-specific manner. Analysis of the inheritance patterns and resistance spectra of transgenic plants carrying six Xa21 gene family members indicated that one member, designated Xa21D, displayed a resistance spectrum identical to that observed for Xa21 but conferred only partial(More)
The 5.67-megabase genome of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 consists of a circular chromosome, a linear chromosome, and two plasmids. Extensive orthology and nucleotide colinearity between the genomes of A. tumefaciens and the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti suggest a recent evolutionary divergence. Their similarities include(More)
The involvement of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway leading to pathogenesis-related gene induction has previously been demonstrated using kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Here, we show that in tobacco suspension cells, SA induced a rapid and transient activation of a 48-kD kinase that uses myelin(More)
Salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wounding-induced protein kinase (WIPK), two distinct members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, are activated in tobacco resisting infection by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). WIPK activation by TMV depends on the disease-resistance gene N because infection of susceptible tobacco not carrying(More)
It has been demonstrated that both salicylic acid and fungal elicitors activate a 48-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase termed salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) in tobacco suspension cells. Here, we show that infiltration of these agents into tobacco leaves also activates SIPK. Of particular interest, infiltration of water alone activated a(More)
The ability to control integration, inheritance, and expression of multiple transgenes is a prerequisite for manipulating biosynthetic pathways and complex agronomic characteristics in plants. One hundred and twenty-five independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated after cobombarding embryogenic tissues with a mixture of 14 different pUC-based(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a ligand for receptors that clear remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. Lack of apoE is, therefore, expected to cause accumulation in plasma of cholesterol-rich remnants whose prolonged circulation should be atherogenic. ApoE-deficient mice generated by gene targeting were used to test this hypothesis and to(More)