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While macro- and microscopic kidney development appear to proceed normally in mice that lack Foxi1, electron microscopy reveals an altered ultrastructure of cells lining the distal nephron. Northern blot analyses, cRNA in situ hybridizations, and immunohistochemistry demonstrate a complete loss of expression of several anion transporters, proton pumps, and(More)
Vascular injury and impaired vascular function are central to the increased mortality associated with diabetes. Hyperglycemia in diabetes has been suggested to play a role in this process, in part by impairing the function of the vascular endothelium. It has been difficult, however, to isolate the direct effect of glucose in both humans and in animal models(More)
OBJECTIVE Angiotensin II (Ang II) accelerates atherogenesis in ApoE mice via the angiotensin II, type 1 receptor (AT1) while the type 2 receptor (AT2) is suggested to counteract atherogenesis. To confirm and further explore this possibility, we studied the effect of AT2 receptor antagonism on Ang II-accelerated atherosclerosis. METHODS ApoE mice were fed(More)
1. Under normal conditions, the endothelium plays a major role in the maintenance of vasodilatory tone via the production of endothelium-derived vasodilator agents, such as prostacyclin, nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxation features prominently in a range of cardiovascular(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the risk of developing hypertension in those living in poverty in rural India. We examined gender and caste influences on risk factors for hypertension in a disadvantaged rural community. METHODS In 1479 adults living in 12 hamlets in rural Andhra Pradesh, we measured blood pressure, height, weight, waist and hip girth,(More)
IL-6 is produced and released in large amounts from skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise in both mice and humans, but there are few data indicating the biological significance of this. IL-6 exerts metabolic effects such as stimulating energy expenditure and reducing body fat mass. We have now investigated the effects of IL-6 deficiency on exercise(More)
The effects of prenatal protein restriction on adult renal and cardiovascular function have been studied in considerable detail. However, little is known about the effects of life-long protein restriction, a common condition in the developing world. Therefore, we determined in rats the effects of combined pre- and postnatal protein restriction on adult(More)
Gap junction channel forming connexins share a common membrane topology which has four transmembrane spanning segments with the amino- and carboxy termini both located on the cytoplasmic side. Both, mutation and truncation of the carboxyl tail of some connexins have been shown previously to have profound effects on channel function. Truncation of the(More)
We determined the contributions of various endothelium-derived relaxing factors to control of basal vascular tone and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the mouse hindlimb in vivo. Under anesthesia, catheters were placed in a carotid artery, jugular vein, and femoral artery (for local hindlimb circulation injections). Hindlimb blood flow (HBF) was(More)
Obesity is the most common cause of human essential hypertension in most industrialized countries. Although the precise mechanisms of obesity hypertension are not fully understood, considerable evidence suggests that excess renal sodium reabsorption and a hypertensive shift of pressure natriuresis play a major role. Sympathetic activation appears to mediate(More)