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The Rho family of GTPases control diverse biological processes, including cell morphology and mitogenesis. We have identified WASP, the protein that is defective in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), as a novel effector for CDC42Hs, but not for the other Rho family members, Rac and Rho. This interaction is dependent on the presence of the G protein-binding(More)
Retinoids exert wide-spectrum anti-tumor activities, which are mediated via the induction of growth arrest, differentiation or apoptosis. To determine whether the effects of retinoids are mediated by specific gene activation or repression, SC-M1 CL23 gastric cancer cells, pretreated with either vehicle alone or all-trans retinoic acid (10 microM) for 1 day,(More)
Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracings showed a bidirectional connection between the optic tectum (OT) and the ipsilateral nucleus isthmi (NI) pars magnocellularis (Imc) in nocturnal Gekko gekko and diurnal Shinisaurus crocodilurus. We found that, in addition to a direct neuronal pathway, there is an indirect pathway from OT to Imc via the nucleus profundus(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that is required for normal brain functioning. However, excessive intake of Mn has been known to lead to neuronal loss and clinical symptoms resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), whose precise molecular mechanism remains largely elusive. In the study, we established a Mn-exposed rat model and(More)
The antiestrogen tamoxifen has been successfully used to control estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor positive breast cancer. However, the development of antiestrogen resistance is frequently observed in patients following long term treatment. We have studied the development of antiestrogen resistance in vitro and established an antiestrogen(More)
Myxococcus xanthus Social (S) motility occurs at high cell densities and is powered by the extension and retraction of Type IV pili which bind ligands normally found in matrix exopolysaccharides (EPS). Previous studies showed that FrzS, a protein required for S-motility, is organized in polar clusters that show pole-to-pole translocation as cells reverse(More)
Introduction: Postoperative delirium, arbitrarily defined as occurring within 5 days of surgery, affects up to 50% of patients older than 60 after a major operation. This geriatric syndrome is associated with longer intensive care unit and hospital stay, readmission, persistent cognitive deterioration and mortality. No effective preventive methods have been(More)
The expressions for the turbulent pressure, equation of state and thermodynamic quantities taking account of turbulent pressure are derived in the framework of the mixing-length theory of convection. The numerical computations indicate that the turbulent pressure in the region close to the surface of a red giant or an AGB star can reach a value of 30-40(More)
A criterion for the occurrence of dynamical instability in the convective envelopes of red giants and AGB stars is presented. Using this criterion we find that the effect of turbulent pressure causes the dynamical instability in the regions very close to the sufaces of red giants and AGB stars, which affect the mass ejection outwards. This may be the(More)
This report studies visual responses of the isthmic units in Gekko gekko and Shinisaurus crocodilurus using extracellular recording and cobalt sulfide marking techniques. Our results indicate that: (i) the nucleus isthmi pars magnocellularis (Imc) is a visual center; (ii) there are luxotonic units in Imc; (iii) Imc units respond vigorously to moving(More)
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