Sharon White

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BACKGROUND Aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole and letrozole are highly effective suppressants of estrogen synthesis in postmenopausal women and are the most effective endocrine treatments for hormone receptor positive breast cancer in such women. Little is known of the molecular effects of these agents on human breast carcinomas in vivo. METHODS We(More)
Sixty-three postmenopausal women with large primary breast cancers were treated with neoadjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg daily) for 3 months. Tumour samples were taken at diagnosis and after 10-14 days and 3 months treatment. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki67, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) was performed and related to clinical(More)
  • Caroline M Robb, Brian Ames, Geoffrey Bannister, Anupam Basu, Hugh Bredenkamp, José Fajgenbaum +17 others
  • 2003
The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. The objective of this paper is to present some early experiences of poverty and social impact analysis(More)
Microarray analysis of tumour RNA is an extremely powerful tool which allows global gene expression to be measured. When used in combination with neoadjuvant treatment protocols in which therapy is given with the primary tumour within the breast, sequential biopsies may be analysed and results correlated with clinical and pathological response. In the(More)
In patients with hormone receptor positive DCIS tamoxifen reduces recurrence rates by almost 50%. Few data are available with aromatase inhibitors from randomised studies. In the ATAC study there were three DCIS lesions in the anastrozole arm and four in the tamoxifen arm in the women with ER positive invasive cancer. In the MA17 study which randomised(More)
HOX genes are master regulators of organ morphogenesis and cell differentiation during embryonic development, and continue to be expressed throughout post-natal life. To test the hypothesis that HOX genes are dysregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) we defined their expression profile, and investigated the function, transcriptional(More)
Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis to the salivary glands is extremely rare. Most cases reported previously have involved the parotid gland and only six cases involving the submandibular gland exist in the current literature. Metastasis of RCC to thyroid gland is also rare but appears to be more common than to salivary glands. Methods and(More)
With the rapid progress of internet technology, more and more software projects adopt e-development to facilitate the software development process in a worldwide context. However, distributed software development activity itself is a complex orchestration. It involves many people working together without the barrier of time and space difference. Therefore,(More)
INTRODUCTION The growth in use of sophisticated Information Technology continues to generate huge amounts of data. The quantity of data has become so enormous that it is now often referred to simply as " big data. " Conventional wisdom says " big data " has become so big that many organizations are " data rich " but lack the tools and expertise to deal(More)