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CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are instrumental in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. One critical question is whether Treg can only be generated in the thymus or can differentiate from peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells. In this paper, we present novel evidence that conversion of naive peripheral CD4+CD25- T cells into anergic/suppressor(More)
A new lineage of effector CD4+ T cells characterized by production of interleukin (IL)-17, the T-helper-17 (T(H)17) lineage, was recently described based on developmental and functional features distinct from those of classical T(H)1 and T(H)2 lineages. Like T(H)1 and T(H)2, T(H)17 cells almost certainly evolved to provide adaptive immunity tailored to(More)
Increased leukocyte elastase activity in mice lacking secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) leads to impaired wound healing due to enhanced activity of TGFbeta and perhaps additional mechanisms. Proepithelin (PEPI), an epithelial growth factor, can be converted to epithelins (EPIs) in vivo by unknown mechanisms with unknown consequences. We found(More)
Infection of adherent primary monocytes with HIV-1Ba-L is significantly suppressed in the presence of human saliva. By reverse transcriptase (RT) levels, saliva, although present for only 1 h during monocyte viral exposure, inhibited HIV-1 infectivity for 3 wk after infection, whereas human plasma and synovial fluid failed to inhibit HIV-1 infectivity.(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of inflammatory organ disease in immunosuppressed persons. To elucidate the mechanisms of CMV-induced inflammation, we investigated whether tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was involved in the pathogenesis of CMV colitis in patients with AIDS. In in situ hybridization experiments, TNF-alpha mRNA was shown to be(More)
After intraarticular injection of TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2, marked swelling and erythema of the injected joints were apparent within 12-24 h. On a scale of 0 to 4, by day 3, the TGF-beta-treated joints had articular indices (AI) of 3.6 +/- 0.5 to 4.0 +/- 0.0 compared with no response for the vehicle-injected contralateral joints. Histopathologic evaluation(More)
Disruption of the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors is often associated with pathologic tissue destruction. To explore the therapeutic potential of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in erosive joint diseases, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed active rat SLPI, which shares the protease-reactive site found in human SLPI. In a rat(More)
Infection of CD4(+) chemokine coreceptor(+) targets by HIV is aided and abetted by the proficiency of HIV in eliminating or neutralizing host cell-derived defensive molecules. Among these innate protective molecules, a family of intracellular apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) cytidine deaminases, is constitutively(More)
Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells mediate immune suppression to limit immunopathogenesis associated with chronic inflammation, persistent infections and autoimmune diseases. Their mode of suppression is contact-dependent, antigen-nonspecific and involves a nonredundant contribution from the cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Not(More)
The source of increasing viremia that characterizes the latter stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has remained a paradox because it occurs at a time when lymphoid tissue is quantitatively and qualitatively impaired, and the patients' CD4 T lymphocytes are steadily declining. Here, macrophages, both infected and uninfected with common(More)