Learn More
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are instrumental in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. One critical question is whether Treg can only be generated in the thymus or can differentiate from peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells. In this paper, we present novel evidence that conversion of naive peripheral CD4+CD25- T cells into anergic/suppressor(More)
A new lineage of effector CD4+ T cells characterized by production of interleukin (IL)-17, the T-helper-17 (T(H)17) lineage, was recently described based on developmental and functional features distinct from those of classical T(H)1 and T(H)2 lineages. Like T(H)1 and T(H)2, T(H)17 cells almost certainly evolved to provide adaptive immunity tailored to(More)
Increased leukocyte elastase activity in mice lacking secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) leads to impaired wound healing due to enhanced activity of TGFbeta and perhaps additional mechanisms. Proepithelin (PEPI), an epithelial growth factor, can be converted to epithelins (EPIs) in vivo by unknown mechanisms with unknown consequences. We found(More)
The generation of animals lacking SMAD proteins, which transduce signals from transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), has made it possible to explore the contribution of the SMAD proteins to TGF-beta activity in vivo. Here we report that, in contrast to predictions made on the basis of the ability of exogenous TGF-beta to improve wound healing,(More)
T cell apoptosis is critical to development and homeostasis of the immune system. The most salient feature of apoptosis is the lack of an attendant inflammatory response or tissue damage. Here, we present evidence that apoptotic T cells release TGF-beta, thereby contributing to an immunosuppressive milieu. Apoptotic T cells released not only latent but also(More)
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), a cytidine deaminase, is a recently recognized innate intracellular protein with lethal activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Packaged into progeny virions, APOBEC3G enzymatic activity leads to HIV DNA degradation. As a counterattack, HIV virion infectivity factor(More)
Disruption of the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors is often associated with pathologic tissue destruction. To explore the therapeutic potential of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in erosive joint diseases, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed active rat SLPI, which shares the protease-reactive site found in human SLPI. In a rat(More)
Recent studies have focused on the potential role of transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta) as an immunoregulatory peptide. In this context, we demonstrate that TGF-beta is a potent chemoattractant for human peripheral blood monocytes. At concentrations from 0.1 to 10 pg/ml, TGF-beta induces directed monocyte migration in vitro. Consistent with(More)
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a serine protease inhibitor with anti-microbial properties found in mucosal fluids. It is expressed during cutaneous wound healing. Impaired healing states are characterized by excessive proteolysis and often bacterial infection, leading to the hypothesis that SLPI may have a role in this process. We have(More)
Infection of adherent primary monocytes with HIV-1Ba-L is significantly suppressed in the presence of human saliva. By reverse transcriptase (RT) levels, saliva, although present for only 1 h during monocyte viral exposure, inhibited HIV-1 infectivity for 3 wk after infection, whereas human plasma and synovial fluid failed to inhibit HIV-1 infectivity.(More)