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CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are instrumental in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. One critical question is whether Treg can only be generated in the thymus or can differentiate from peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells. In this paper, we present novel evidence that conversion of naive peripheral CD4+CD25- T cells into anergic/suppressor(More)
A new lineage of effector CD4+ T cells characterized by production of interleukin (IL)-17, the T-helper-17 (T(H)17) lineage, was recently described based on developmental and functional features distinct from those of classical T(H)1 and T(H)2 lineages. Like T(H)1 and T(H)2, T(H)17 cells almost certainly evolved to provide adaptive immunity tailored to(More)
Increased leukocyte elastase activity in mice lacking secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) leads to impaired wound healing due to enhanced activity of TGFbeta and perhaps additional mechanisms. Proepithelin (PEPI), an epithelial growth factor, can be converted to epithelins (EPIs) in vivo by unknown mechanisms with unknown consequences. We found(More)
Disruption of the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors is often associated with pathologic tissue destruction. To explore the therapeutic potential of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in erosive joint diseases, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed active rat SLPI, which shares the protease-reactive site found in human SLPI. In a rat(More)
Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells mediate immune suppression to limit immunopathogenesis associated with chronic inflammation, persistent infections and autoimmune diseases. Their mode of suppression is contact-dependent, antigen-nonspecific and involves a nonredundant contribution from the cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Not(More)
The source of increasing viremia that characterizes the latter stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has remained a paradox because it occurs at a time when lymphoid tissue is quantitatively and qualitatively impaired, and the patients' CD4 T lymphocytes are steadily declining. Here, macrophages, both infected and uninfected with common(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), a toxic radical gas produced during the metabolism of L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS), has been implicated as a mediator of immune and inflammatory responses. A single injection of streptococcal cell wall fragments (SCW) induces the accumulation of inflammatory cells within the synovial tissue and a cell-mediated immune response that(More)
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), a cytidine deaminase, is a recently recognized innate intracellular protein with lethal activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Packaged into progeny virions, APOBEC3G enzymatic activity leads to HIV DNA degradation. As a counterattack, HIV virion infectivity factor(More)
Our previous work demonstrated that cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated tumor immuno-surveillance of the 15-12RM tumor could be suppressed by a CD1d-restricted lymphocyte, most likely a natural killer (NK) T cell, which produces interleukin (IL)-13. Here we present evidence for the effector elements in this suppressive pathway. T cell–reconstituted(More)