Sharon W. M. Wong

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This study examined the mechanism for hyperexcitability after ethanol withdrawal from isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. Ethanol (65-130 mM, 30 min) significantly depressed the glutamate receptor-mediated population excitatory postsynaptic potential (pEPSP) underlying the monosynaptic reflex. On washing with drug-free solution the response recovered to(More)
BACKGROUND Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are considered important in mediating anesthetic actions. Mice lacking the beta3 subunit of this receptor (beta3-/-) have a higher enflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) than wild types (+/+). MAC is predominantly determined in spinal cord. METHODS The authors measured three(More)
1. An inward current (I[in]) was produced by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and muscimol, but not by baclofen, in an identifiable giant neuron type, v-LCDN (ventral-left cerebral distinct neuron), of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Ferussac) under voltage clamp. 2. The pharmacological features of the excitatory GABA receptors in this Achatina neuron(More)
Ethanol, usually studied in relation to intoxication, is also capable of producing general anesthesia. The most common standard of anesthetic potency is the concentration which produces immobility in response to a noxious stimulus. This concentration will be referred to as the anesthetic concentration. Immobilization is a spinal effect. Ethanol effects were(More)
1. The pharmacologic characteristics of excitatory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, termed muscimol II type GABA receptors, found in a giant neuron type, v-LCDN (ventral-left cerebral distinct neuron), of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac), were studied using the mammalian GABA receptor agonists, antagonists and synergists and GABA(More)
1. An African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac), originally from East Africa, is now found abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, including Okinawa in Japan. This is one of the largest land snail species in the world. The Achatina central nervous system is composed of the buccal, cerebral and suboesophageal ganglia. The 37 giant(More)
Podcasting has the potential to enhance learning by giving students mobile access to course materials anytime, anywhere. In particular, integrating podcasting, electronic learning (e-learning), and traditional face-to-face teaching into a blended learning (b-learning) environment can help create a push-pull educational exchange that increases student(More)
The complement between pull and push learning modes is believed to be contributable to enriching students' learning experiences. Podcasting, a push technology, can be used to push teaching materials to the students' handheld devices, allowing them to study without any geographical and temporal constraints. The students can then revise the materials(More)
Achatin-I (Gly-D-Phe-Ala-Asp), a tetrapeptide having a D-phenylalanine residue and isolated from Achatina ganglia, has been proposed as an excitatory neurotransmitter of Achatina neurones. In the present study, it was demonstrated using Achatina giant neurones that achetin-I, perfused at alow concentration, enhanced an inward current (Iin) caused by(More)
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