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CONTEXT Gene expression analysis has identified several breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive/estrogen receptor negative (HER2+/ER-), luminal A, and luminal B. OBJECTIVES To determine population-based distributions and clinical associations for breast cancer subtypes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)
To explore the role of smoking in breast cancer, we undertook a population-based study to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of p53 mutations in the breast tumors of smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated 456 archival invasive breast tumors for mutations in exons 4-8 of the p53 gene, using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis and manual(More)
INTRODUCTION Evidence suggests that alterations in estrogen signaling pathways, including estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha), occur during breast cancer development. A point mutation in ER-alpha (nucleotide A908G), producing an amino acid change from lysine to arginine at codon 303 (K303R) results in receptor hypersensitivity to estrogen. This mutation was(More)
Malignant melanomas often contain BRAF or NRAS mutations, but the relationship of these mutations to ambient UV exposure in combination with phenotypic characteristics is unknown. In a population-based case series from North Carolina, 214 first primary invasive melanoma patients in the year 2000 were interviewed regarding their risk factors. Ambient solar(More)
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an important regulator of growth and differentiation and is a potent mitogen for human breast cancer cells. Recent investigations suggest an association between cytosine-adenine dinucleotide (CA)n repeat polymorphisms of the IGF1 gene and IGF-I levels and further evidence indicates that genotype may influence breast(More)
The RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway likely mediates critical cell proliferation and survival signals in melanoma. BRAF mutations have been found in a high percentage of melanoma cell lines and metastases; however, only a few studies with a limited number of specimens have focused on primary melanomas. We examined BRAF exon 15 mutational status in 37 primary invasive(More)
DNA methylation, an epigenetic alteration typically occurring early in cancer development, could aid in the molecular diagnosis of melanoma. We determined technical feasibility for high-throughput DNA-methylation array-based profiling using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for selection of candidate DNA-methylation differences between melanomas and(More)
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with several intrinsic subtypes differing by hormone receptor (HR) status, molecular profiles, and prognosis. However, the role of DNA methylation in breast cancer development and progression and its relationship with the intrinsic tumor subtypes are not fully understood. A microarray targeting promoters of(More)
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in a number of tumors, including breast cancer. Another marker of breast cancer tumorigenesis is the tumor suppressor gene p53 that is frequently mutated in breast cancer. In the present study, our aim was to find a correlation between FAK overexpression, p53 expression and mutation status in a population-based(More)