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CONTEXT Gene expression analysis has identified several breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive/estrogen receptor negative (HER2+/ER-), luminal A, and luminal B. OBJECTIVES To determine population-based distributions and clinical associations for breast cancer subtypes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)
INTRODUCTION Evidence suggests that alterations in estrogen signaling pathways, including estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha), occur during breast cancer development. A point mutation in ER-alpha (nucleotide A908G), producing an amino acid change from lysine to arginine at codon 303 (K303R) results in receptor hypersensitivity to estrogen. This mutation was(More)
DNA methylation, an epigenetic alteration typically occurring early in cancer development, could aid in the molecular diagnosis of melanoma. We determined technical feasibility for high-throughput DNA-methylation array-based profiling using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for selection of candidate DNA-methylation differences between melanomas and(More)
Mutations of the sequence-specific master regulator p53 that alter transactivation function from promoter response elements (RE) could result in changes in the strength of gene activation or spectra of genes regulated. Such mutations in this tumor suppressor might lead to dramatic phenotypic changes and diversification of cell responses to stress. We have(More)
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with several intrinsic subtypes differing by hormone receptor (HR) status, molecular profiles, and prognosis. However, the role of DNA methylation in breast cancer development and progression and its relationship with the intrinsic tumor subtypes are not fully understood. A microarray targeting promoters of(More)
INTRODUCTION Estrogen is important in the development of breast cancer, and its biological effects are mediated primarily through the two estrogen receptors alpha and beta. A point mutation in the estrogen receptor alpha gene, ESR1, referred to as A908G or K303R, was originally identified in breast hyperplasias and was reported to be hypersensitive to(More)
PURPOSE IL2 inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) promoter CpG sites are hypomethylated in melanomas compared with nevi. The expression of ITK in melanomas, however, has not been established and requires elucidation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN An ITK-specific monoclonal antibody was used to probe sections from deidentified, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks(More)
HRAS rare alleles have been associated with the increased susceptibility to a variety of cancers. In the present study we examined the hypothesis that HRAS rare alleles are a risk factor for adult glioma in a population-based case-control study of adult glioma in six San Francisco Bay Area counties. We compared the prevalence of rare alleles in the variable(More)
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