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CONTEXT Gene expression analysis has identified several breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive/estrogen receptor negative (HER2+/ER-), luminal A, and luminal B. OBJECTIVES To determine population-based distributions and clinical associations for breast cancer subtypes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an important regulator of growth and differentiation and is a potent mitogen for human breast cancer cells. Recent investigations suggest an association between cytosine-adenine dinucleotide (CA)n repeat polymorphisms of the IGF1 gene and IGF-I levels and further evidence indicates that genotype may influence breast(More)
To explore the role of smoking in breast cancer, we undertook a population-based study to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of p53 mutations in the breast tumors of smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated 456 archival invasive breast tumors for mutations in exons 4-8 of the p53 gene, using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis and manual(More)
INTRODUCTION Evidence suggests that alterations in estrogen signaling pathways, including estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha), occur during breast cancer development. A point mutation in ER-alpha (nucleotide A908G), producing an amino acid change from lysine to arginine at codon 303 (K303R) results in receptor hypersensitivity to estrogen. This mutation was(More)
Malignant melanomas often contain BRAF or NRAS mutations, but the relationship of these mutations to ambient UV exposure in combination with phenotypic characteristics is unknown. In a population-based case series from North Carolina, 214 first primary invasive melanoma patients in the year 2000 were interviewed regarding their risk factors. Ambient solar(More)
The RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway likely mediates critical cell proliferation and survival signals in melanoma. BRAF mutations have been found in a high percentage of melanoma cell lines and metastases; however, only a few studies with a limited number of specimens have focused on primary melanomas. We examined BRAF exon 15 mutational status in 37 primary invasive(More)
DNA methylation, an epigenetic alteration typically occurring early in cancer development, could aid in the molecular diagnosis of melanoma. We determined technical feasibility for high-throughput DNA-methylation array-based profiling using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for selection of candidate DNA-methylation differences between melanomas and(More)
Epstein-Barr virus DNA was analyzed from specimens of hairy leukoplakia, an oral lesion that occurs in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The simultaneous presence of both type 1 and type 2 Epstein-Barr virus was demonstrated by Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction assay. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the(More)
Mutations of the sequence-specific master regulator p53 that alter transactivation function from promoter response elements (RE) could result in changes in the strength of gene activation or spectra of genes regulated. Such mutations in this tumor suppressor might lead to dramatic phenotypic changes and diversification of cell responses to stress. We have(More)