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Infectious diarrheal diseases and protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) are major causes of child morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the present study, PEM was superimposed on rotavirus infection in neonatal pigs to simulate chronic small intestinal stress in malnourished infants with viral gastroenteritis. Two-day-old cesarean-derived pigs (n = 39) were(More)
There are many potential applications of transgenic methodologies for developing new and improved strains of livestock. One practical application of transgenic technology in pig production is to improve milk production or composition. The first week after parturition is the period of greatest loss for pig producers, with highest morbidity and mortality(More)
The opportunities for utilizing swine biomedical models are immense, particularly in models that address lifestyle issues (nutrition, stress, alcohol, drugs of abuse, etc.). However, in order to fully capitalize upon the promise, there needs to be a more general recognition of these cofactors, such as nutrition, as key modulators of phenotype via genomic,(More)
The effect of orally administered IGF-I on intestinal development was assessed in piglets. Cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived piglets received formula alone or formula containing 65 nM (500 microg/L) of recombinant human IGF-I. IGF-I intake averaged 200 microg/kg/d. On d 7 and 14 postpartum, piglets were killed, organs were removed and weighed, and tissue(More)
Gut microbiota and the host exist in a mutualistic relationship, with the functional composition of the microbiota strongly affecting the health and well-being of the host. Thus, it is important to develop a synthetic approach to study the host transcriptome and the microbiome simultaneously. Early microbial colonization in infants is critically important(More)
The early postnatal period is a critical time for gastrointestinal (GI) and immune development. Neonates fed mother's milk have more rapid GI and immune development than fed-formula infants. In addition, clinical and epidemiologic data provide strong evidence that breastfeeding reduces the incidence and/or severity of infectious diseases. Lactoferrin is a(More)
Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The addition of fiber to infant formulas reduces recovery time following pathogenic infection in infants > 6 mo old, but effects on neonates are unknown. The hypothesis that fermentable fiber reduces infection-associated symptoms and enhances intestinal structure and function in neonates was(More)
BACKGROUND Effects of diet on the structure and function of gut microbial communities in newborn infants are poorly understood. High-resolution molecular studies are needed to definitively ascertain whether gut microbial communities are distinct in milk-fed and formula-fed infants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Pyrosequencing-based whole transcriptome(More)
The objectives of this study were to use transgenic sows that overexpress IGF-I in milk to investigate the effect of a short-term fast on piglet intestinal morphology and disaccharidase activity and to determine how milk-borne IGF-I influences the response to fasting. After farrowing, litters were normalized to 10 piglets. On d 6, piglets (n = 30) suckling(More)