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Gut microbiota and the host exist in a mutualistic relationship, with the functional composition of the microbiota strongly affecting the health and well-being of the host. Thus, it is important to develop a synthetic approach to study the host transcriptome and the microbiome simultaneously. Early microbial colonization in infants is critically important(More)
The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has tripled since the 1980s and is strongly linked to the early onset of several metabolic diseases. Recent studies indicate that lower cognitive function may be another complication of childhood obesity. This review considers the research to date on the role of obesity and nutrition on childhood(More)
BACKGROUND Compromised barrier function and intestinal inflammation are common complications of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that the lack of enteral nutrients in TPN might select commensal or pathogenic bacteria that use mucus as a substrate, thereby weakening the protection provided by the intestinal mucus layer.(More)
BACKGROUND Effects of diet on the structure and function of gut microbial communities in newborn infants are poorly understood. High-resolution molecular studies are needed to definitively ascertain whether gut microbial communities are distinct in milk-fed and formula-fed infants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Pyrosequencing-based whole transcriptome(More)
We have developed a novel molecular methodology that utilizes stool samples containing intact sloughed epithelial cells to quantify intestinal gene expression profiles in the developing human neonate. Since nutrition exerts a major role in regulating neonatal intestinal development and function, our goal was to identify gene sets (combinations) that are(More)
This paper resulted from a conference entitled "Lactation and Milk: Defining and refining the critical questions" held at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from January 18-20, 2012. The mission of the conference was to identify unresolved questions and set future goals for research into human milk composition, mammary development and lactation.(More)
Human milk (HM) is rich in oligosaccharides (HMO) that exert prebiotic and anti-infective activities. HM feeding reduces the incidence of rotavirus (RV) infection in infants. Herein, the anti-RV activity of oligosaccharides was tested in an established in vitro system for assessing cellular binding and viral infectivity/replication, and also tested in a(More)
INTRODUCTION Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas(More)
The objective of this study was to determine if a reduction in dietary CP, with partial replacement of the intact protein with crystalline AA (CAA), would alter growth, morphology, and free or peptide-bound AA concentrations of intestinal mucosa in growing pigs. Twenty-four barrows (37.0 +/- 1.5 kg of BW) were fed 1 of 4 diets for 24 d: 16.1% CP with no(More)
Start and child care providers' motivators, barriers and facilitators to practicing family-style meal service" (2014). Introduction Despite the recent favorable news of reduction in childhood obesity rates, obesity prevalence in the United States has dramatically increased during the past 20 years and is among the highest in the world (Centers for Disease(More)