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Host defence against infection requires a range of innate and adaptive immune responses that may lead to tissue damage. Such immune-mediated pathologies can be controlled with appropriate T regulatory (Treg) activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of gut microbiota composition on Treg cellular activity and NF-kappaB activation(More)
The combined effects of acute alcoholic intoxication and moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) on zif/268, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA expression were examined. Adult male Wistar rats received ip injections of a 5% alcohol solution (2.4 g/kg in a final volume of 20 ml isotonic saline) 10 min prior to fixed-head,(More)
Very small amounts of pituitary hormones and their peptide fragments can profoundly affect learning, memory and other behaviors in both rodents and humans. In addition, several potent pituitary hormone analogs have been developed (e.g. ORG-2766) which retain the behavioral but not the endocrine properties of the parent hormone. The abilities of these(More)
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), maze performance and the influence of environmental enrichment on these parameters were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats aged 6, 12 and 24 months. Learning ability in a complex sequential T-maze (Stone maze) progressively declined with increasing age in rats which were normally housed in standard caging. Environmental(More)
Regional cerebrovascular permeability-capillary surface area products (rPS) and brain vascular space (BVS) were measured in aging, conscious, unrestrained Sprague-Dawley rats. Three groups of animals were examined: young-mature (6 months), middle-aged (12-14 months), and old (24-26 months) rats. Complex maze learning had been previously characterized in(More)
Acute effects of the hormones, estradiol-17beta and alphaMSH, and of neonatal pretreatment with alphaMSH on the flow of blood to regions of the brains of conscious adult rats have been determined with an indicator distribution technique. As previously reported, flows were reduced in most areas within 10 min after intravenous administration of alphaMSH; only(More)
Although duration of unconsciousness is commonly used as a prognostic index following traumatic brain injury (TBI), few controlled studies have statistically evaluated the relationship between unconsciousness and histologic pathology, particularly after moderate head injury. Using a pendulum-striker concussive device, a reproducible model of TBI in rats was(More)
Microwaves (pulsed, 2,450 MHz) at an average power density of 3 W/cm2 were applied directly to the head for 5, 10, or 20 min, producing a peak specific absorption rate of 240 W/kg in the brain, which, after a 10-min exposure, resulted in brain temperatures in excess of 43 degrees C. A bolus of 86Rb in isotonic saline was injected intravenously and an(More)
BACKGROUND Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are among the early and important colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract and are generally considered to be part of a normal, healthy microbiota. It is believed that specific strains within the microbiota can influence host immune-reactivity and may play a role in protection from infection and aberrant(More)