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The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population-adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to represent these(More)
Key findings Educators need to understand how students are identified as at risk for reading problems. This study found that the classification and regression tree (CART) model—a type of predictive modeling that presents results in an easy-to-interpret " tree " format—predicted poor performance on the reading comprehension subtest of the Stanford(More)
Key findings To what extent does individual student change (growth) over the academic year statistically explain why students differ in end-of-year performance after accounting for performance on interim assessments? The four growth estimates examined in this report (simple difference, average difference, ordinary least squares, and empirical Bayes) all(More)
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