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We examined whether larval and adult behavior, physiology, and chemical defense were altered as a result of host range expansion by the Baltimore checkerspot (Euphydryas phaeton, Nymphalidae) from the native host plant, turtlehead (Cheloneglabra, Scrophulariaceae), to the introduced weed, plantain (Plantago lanceolata, Plantaginaceae). We found that newly(More)
Soil seed banks serve as reservoirs for future plant communities, and when diverse and abundant can buffer vegetation communities against environmental fluctuations. Sparse seed banks, however, may lead to future declines of already rare species. Seed banks in wetland communities are often robust and can persist over long time periods making wetlands model(More)
Environmental filters are well-known influences on aboveground vegetation community structure; however, less is known about their role on belowground seed banks. Understanding the influence of environmental filters on the composition of seed banks can reveal community dynamics across known environmental gradients and facilitate restoration efforts. We(More)
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