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Chronic systemic inflammatory conditions, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity are associated with increased risk of stroke, which suggests that systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of stroke in humans. The hypothesis that systemic inflammation may induce brain pathology can be tested in animals, and this was the key objective of(More)
The naturally occurring antagonist of interleukin-1, IL-1RA, is highly neuroprotective experimentally, shows few adverse effects, and inhibits the systemic acute phase response to stroke. A single regime pilot study showed slow penetration into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at experimentally therapeutic concentrations. Twenty-five patients with subarachnoid(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key mediator of ischaemic brain injury induced by stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) limits brain injury in experimental stroke and reduces plasma inflammatory mediators associated with poor outcome in ischaemic stroke patients. Intravenous (IV) IL-1Ra crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB)(More)
Cytokines and cytokine receptor concentrations increase in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The relationship between plasma and CSF cytokines, and factors affecting this, are not clear. To help define the relationship, paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from patients(More)
  • J R Selvarajah, C J Smith, S Hulme, R F Georgiou, A Vail, P J Tyrrell
  • 2008
BACKGROUND The ABCD2 score predicts stroke risk within a few days of transient ischaemic attack (TIA). It is not clear whether the predictive value of the ABCD2 score can be generalised to UK TIA services, where delayed presentation of TIA and minor stroke are common. We investigated prognosis, and the use of the ABCD2 score, in patients attending TIA(More)
INTRODUCTION The placement of external ventricular drain (EVD) is a common neurosurgical procedure to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in many acute neurosurgical conditions that disrupt the normal CSF absorption pathway. Infection is the primary complication with infection rates ranging between 0% and 45%, and this is associated with significant morbidity(More)
OBJECTIVE Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating cerebrovascular event with long-term morbidity and mortality. Patients who survive the initial bleeding are likely to suffer further early brain injury arising from a plethora of pathological processes. These may result in a worsening of outcome or death in approximately 25% of patients(More)
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, a naturally-occurring antagonist to the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1, is already in clinical use. In experimental models of stroke, Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in cerebrospinal fluid has been associated with cerebral neuroprotection and in a phase I clinical trial in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage(More)
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