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Research examining the relationship between community diversity and invasions by nonnative species has raised new questions about the theory and management of biological invasions. Ecological theory predicts, and small-scale experiments confirm, lower levels of nonnative species invasion into species-rich compared to species-poor communities, but(More)
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were monitored for 4 years following three wildfires. Logistic regression analyses were used to develop models predicting the probability of attack by Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, 1905) and the probability of Douglas-fir mortality within 4 years following fire. Percent crown volume(More)
Fire injury was characterized and survival monitored for 5,246 trees from five wildfires in California that occurred between 1999 and 2002. Logistic regression models for predicting the probability of mortality were developed for incense-cedar, Jeffrey pine, ponderosa pine, red fir and white fir. Two-year post-fire preliminary models were developed for(More)
Carriers of X-linked color vision deficiencies have previously been reported to exhibit mild abnormalities of color matching and discrimination. In a sample of 55 carriers of protan and deutan deficiencies and 55 age-matched normal controls, we measured chromatic discrimination along a red-green axis. We found that discrimination was impaired in the case of(More)
Induced defense is a common plant strategy in response to herbivory. Although abiotic damage, such as physical wounding, pruning, and heating, can induce plant defense, the effect of such damage by large-scale abiotic disturbances on induced defenses has not been explored and could have important consequences for plant survival facing future biotic(More)
Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example,(More)
Climate change is expected to drive increased tree mortality through drought, heat stress, and insect attacks, with manifold impacts on forest ecosystems. Yet, climate-induced tree mortality and biotic disturbance agents are largely absent from process-based ecosystem models. Using data sets from the western USA and associated studies, we present a(More)
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent literature could be quantitatively compared among studies. We also(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess nutrient intakes and vitamin levels in 79 patients with rheumatoid arthritis participating in a trial and to determine whether changes in body mass index were associated with changes in disease activity. METHODS This study evaluated baseline vitamin levels, 1-day dietary intakes, and weight every 3 months for 1 year. Linear regression(More)
This report synthesizes the literature and current state of knowledge pertaining to reintroducing fire in stands where it has been excluded for long periods and the impact of these introductory fires on overstory tree injury and mortality. Only forested ecosystems in the United States that are adapted to survive frequent fire are included. Treatment options(More)