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Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue in direct proportion to amount of body fat. The circulating leptin levels serve as a gauge of energy stores, thereby directing the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and metabolism. Persons with congenital deficiency are obese, and treatment with leptin results in dramatic weight loss(More)
Hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral endocrine axes, leading to infertility and bone loss, and usually is caused by chronic energy deficiency secondary to strenuous exercise and/or decreased food intake. Energy deficiency also leads to hypoleptinemia, which has been proposed, on the basis of(More)
Leptin regulates energy homeostasis and reproductive, neuroendocrine, immune, and metabolic functions. In this review, we describe the role of leptin in human physiology and review evidence from recent "proof of concept" clinical trials using recombinant human leptin in subjects with congenital leptin deficiency, hypoleptinemia associated with(More)
Strenuously exercising young women with hypothalamic amenorrhea are hypoleptinemic and have low bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), which predispose them to increased fracture risk. Short-term leptin replacement in these women corrects many neuroendocrine abnormalities and increases circulating levels of bone formation markers. Whether treatment(More)
Lipodystrophy is a medical condition characterized by complete or partial loss of adipose tissue. Not infrequently, lipodystrophy occurs in combination with pathological accumulation of adipose tissue at distinct anatomical sites. Patients with lipodystrophy exhibit numerous metabolic complications, which indicate the importance of adipose tissue as an(More)
The 2013 Position Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) has adopted simplified indications for vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) based on an analysis of the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). This showed that a simpler regression model, which included only age, bone mineral density (BMD), and height loss,(More)
Adiponectin has been proposed to be a mediator of obesity-associated malignancies and to have direct antineoplastic effects acting via adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. We describe herein the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in several cancers not previously studied. We used immunohistochemistry to assess expression of adiponectin receptors in(More)
Since its discovery as an adipocyte-secreted hormone, leptin has been found to impact food intake, energy homeostasis, and metabolism through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Recent research indicates that leptin may also be involved in cognition, immune function, and bone metabolism. These findings place leptin at the(More)
Leptin, as a key hormone in energy homeostasis, regulates neuroendocrine function, including reproduction. It has a permissive role in the initiation of puberty and maintenance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This is notable in patients with either congenital or acquired leptin deficiency from a state of chronic energy insufficiency.(More)
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that controls food intake and reproductive and immune functions in rodents. In uncontrolled human studies, low leptin levels are associated with impaired immune responses and reduced T-cell counts; however, the effects of leptin replacement on the adaptive immune system have not yet been reported in the context of(More)