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BACKGROUND We examined adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the homeless population, a population thought to be at high risk for poor adherence to therapy and for development of drug-resistant strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS We performed a 12-month prospective study of 148 persons receiving HAART who were(More)
The mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection is poorly characterized. In northern California, 2,752 household members were tested for H. pylori infection in serum or stool at a baseline visit and 3 months later. Among 1,752 person considered uninfected at baseline, 30 new infections (7 definite, 7 probable, and 16 possible) occurred, for an(More)
OBJECTIVES Further scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to those in need while supporting the growing patient cohort on ART requires continuous adaptation of healthcare delivery models. We describe several approaches to manage stable patients on ART developed by Médecins Sans Frontières together with Ministries of Health in four countries in sub-Saharan(More)
With continuing emigration from endemic countries, screening for parasitic infections remains a priority in U.S. communities serving refugee and immigrant populations. We report the prevalence of helminths and protozoa as well as demographic risk factors associated with these infections among 533 refugees seen at the Santa Clara County, California, Refugee(More)
Mortality has declined in most HIV-infected populations yet remains high among those with barriers to accessing antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. We sought to determine predictors of death in a group of HIV-infected homeless persons in San Francisco. Between 1996 and 2002, quarterly interviews and blood draws were conducted. Hazards of death were compared by(More)
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have revolutionized infectious disease diagnosis, allowing for the rapid and sensitive identification of pathogens in clinical specimens. Real-time PCR testing for the mecA gene (mecA PCR), which confers methicillin resistance in staphylococci, has the added potential to reduce antibiotic usage, improve clinical(More)
To assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis disease progression, we studied vitamin D levels in a cohort of tuberculosis patients and their contacts (N = 129) in Pakistan. Most (79%) persons showed deficiency. Low vitamin D levels were associated with a 5-fold increased risk for progression to tuberculosis.
OBJECTIVES To assess the relationship between development of antiretroviral drug resistance and adherence by measured treatment duration, virologic suppression, and the rate of accumulating new drug resistance mutations at different levels of adherence. METHODS Adherence was measured with unannounced pill counts performed at the participant's usual place(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined factors associated with emergency department use among homeless and marginally housed persons. METHODS Interviews were conducted with 2578 homeless and marginally housed persons, and factors associated with different patterns of emergency department use were assessed in multivariate models. RESULTS Findings showed that(More)
BACKGROUND Homeless persons experience high rates of sexual and physical assault; homeless women are thought to be at highest risk. To determine the prevalence, distribution, and factors associated with sexual and physical assault, we surveyed homeless and marginally housed adults in San Francisco, Calif. METHODS We interviewed 2577 respondents about(More)