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At what point in the process of speech production is gesture involved? According to the Lexical Retrieval Hypothesis, gesture is involved in generating the surface forms of utterances. Speciically, gesture facilitates access to items in the mental lexicon. According to the Information Packaging Hypothesis, gesture is involved in the conceptual planning of(More)
Code comprehension problems have been shown to be effective assessment items in computer science education. In this paper we present qualitative and quantitative results of a study evaluating the effectiveness of code comprehension questions with feedback as learning events. Students taking an introductory programming course that satisfies a university(More)
For all novices who thought it was their fault. Abstract The translation of algorithms and abstractions to formalisms, most often code, is a fundamental task of a computer scientist. Both novices and experts use development environments to provide feedback about the code they have written as a part of the iterative process of solving a problem. Almost all(More)
This discussion paper describes the results of a pilot study into the mental models of data and data structures held by people based upon the software applications that they use frequently. Computers and data intensive software like email and iTunes have become a large part of our daily lives. The results are provided to motivate discussion about prevalent(More)
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