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One of the major determinants of reinstatement to cocaine use among human addicts is acute reexposure to the drug, which often precipitates cocaine craving and relapse. We used an animal model of cocaine relapse to determine the role of the glutamatergic pathway from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to the nucleus accumbens in the reinstatement of(More)
Increases in dopamine and glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens independently promote the reinstatement of cocaine seeking, an animal model of relapse. Here we have tested whether cocaine reinstatement in rats depends on interactions between accumbal dopamine and glutamate systems that are mediated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated kinase II (CaMKII).(More)
RATIONALE A growing literature indicates that increased dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens contributes to priming-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. OBJECTIVES The present experiments were designed to assess the role of D(1)-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell subregions in cocaine priming-induced(More)
Cocaine addiction in human addicts is characterized by a high rate of relapse following successful detoxification. Relapse to drug taking/seeking can be precipitated by several stimuli including, but not limited to, re-exposure to cocaine itself. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying cocaine craving, a substantial effort has been devoted to(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are involved in both cocaine reinforcement and the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. In the present experiments, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under fixed ratio (for cocaine priming-induced reinstatement) or second-order (for cocaine cue-induced(More)
Although increases in dopamine transmission in the brain are clearly involved in the reinstatement of cocaine seeking, the role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in cocaine priming-induced reinstatement remains controversial. The goal of these experiments was to evaluate the relative contributions of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus(More)
Rats were placed in a stressful environment for 24 hr per day and levels of plasma hormones were measured after varying numbers of days in the environment. Rats were habituated to operant chambers placed in sound-attenuated enclosures. Food pellets were available by lever press on a FR1 schedule. After 3 days of habituation, rats in the "stressed" group(More)
The transition from casual drug use to addiction, and the intense drug craving that accompanies it, has been postulated to result from neuroadaptations within the limbic system caused by repeated drug exposure. This review will examine the implications of cocaine-induced alterations in mesolimbic dopamine receptor signaling within the context of several(More)
BACKGROUND Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease with few treatment options other than renal replacement therapy. p21, a cyclin kinase inhibitor which has pleiotropic effects on the cell cycle, in many cases acts to suppress cell cycle progression and to prevent apoptosis. Because defects in cell cycle arrest and(More)
We have previously reported effects of chronic stress on circadian rhythms of temperature, eating, and locomotor activity. These studies were conducted using an around-the-clock signalled intermittent footshock paradigm in which some rats have control over shock termination while other rats are yoked to the rats with control. Although this paradigm is(More)