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The complete sequence of the 16,569-base pair human mitochondrial genome is presented. The genes for the 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II and III, ATPase subunit 6, cytochrome b and eight other predicted protein coding genes have been located. The sequence shows extreme economy in that the genes have none or only a few(More)
A balanced (1;11)(q42.1;q14.3) translocation segregates with schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders in a large Scottish family (maximum LOD = 6.0). We hypothesize that the translocation is the causative event and that it directly disrupts gene function. We previously reported a dearth of genes in the breakpoint region of chromosome 11 and it is(More)
One of the major determinants of reinstatement to cocaine use among human addicts is acute reexposure to the drug, which often precipitates cocaine craving and relapse. We used an animal model of cocaine relapse to determine the role of the glutamatergic pathway from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to the nucleus accumbens in the reinstatement of(More)
The origin of the ratites, large flightless birds from the Southern Hemisphere, along with their flighted sister taxa, the South American tinamous, is central to understanding the role of plate tectonics in the distributions of modern birds and mammals. Defining the dates of ratite divergences is also critical for determining the age of modern avian orders.(More)
Increases in dopamine and glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens independently promote the reinstatement of cocaine seeking, an animal model of relapse. Here we have tested whether cocaine reinstatement in rats depends on interactions between accumbal dopamine and glutamate systems that are mediated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated kinase II (CaMKII).(More)
Herein, the genetic control of regionalization and connectivity of the neocortex are reviewed. Evidence is accumulating which suggests that intrinsic mechanisms have a central role in controlling cortical regional specification and differentiation. Expression patterns of several genes (Id-2, Tbr-1, cadherin-6, cadherin-8, neuropilin-2, Wnt-7b, Eph-A7 and(More)
RATIONALE A growing literature indicates that increased dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens contributes to priming-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. OBJECTIVES The present experiments were designed to assess the role of D(1)-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell subregions in cocaine priming-induced(More)
BACKGROUND Bisphosphonates have profound effects on bone physiology, and could modify the process of metastasis. We undertook collaborative meta-analyses to clarify the risks and benefits of adjuvant bisphosphonate treatment in breast cancer. METHODS We sought individual patient data from all unconfounded trials in early breast cancer that randomised(More)
Micropuncture and morphologic studies were performed in four groups of male Munich-Wistar rats after removal of the right kidney and segmental infarction of two-thirds of the left kidney. Groups 1 and 3 received no specific therapy. Groups 2 and 4 were treated with the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, 50 mg/liter of which was put in(More)
The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) is an indigenous non-governmental organization (NGO) of HIV-infected and affected people in Uganda. TASO provides counselling, social support, medical and nursing care for opportunistic infections at 7 centres affiliated to district hospitals in Uganda. Between 1993 and 1994, the services provided by TASO were evaluated(More)