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The use of the highly effective Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has increased globally. We review the benefits and limitations of studies measuring Hib vaccine effectiveness (VE). We critically examine the case-control approach by assessing the similarities and differences in methodology and findings and discuss the need for future Hib(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent reports suggest that candidemia caused by fluconazole-resistant strains is increasing in certain adult populations. We evaluated the annual incidence of neonatal candidemia and the frequency of disease caused by different species of Candida among neonates in the United States. PATIENTS The study included neonates admitted to 128 NICUs(More)
BACKGROUND Our objective was to determine risks factors for late onset candidemia, independent of birth weight, in newborn infants. METHODS We performed a matched case-control study. Cases were identified through active, population-based surveillance for candidemia, conducted in Baltimore City and County during 1998-2000, and were defined as the incident(More)
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have been underutilized globally. We report progress in global use of Hib vaccines included in national immunization schedules. The number of countries using Hib vaccine increased from 89/193 (46%) in 2004 to 158/193 (82%) by the end of 2009. The increase was greatest among low-income countries eligible(More)
Refugees are at risk for psychiatric morbidity, yet little is known about their mental health conditions. We identified factors associated with depression symptoms among Bhutanese refugees in the US. We randomly selected adult Bhutanese refugees (N = 386) to complete a cross-sectional survey concerning demographics, mental health symptoms, and associated(More)
BACKGROUND Measles among displaced, malnourished populations can result in a high case fatality ratio. In 2011, a large measles outbreak occurred in Dadaab, Kenya, among refugees fleeing famine and conflict in Somalia. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of measles deaths among hospitalized patients during the outbreak. METHODS A(More)
In Asia, questions regarding the burden of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease have delayed decision-making on introduction of Hib vaccine. However, over the past decade many studies have been published regarding Hib disease burden in Asia. We conducted a systematic literature review of all reports of Hib disease burden in Asia between 1998 and(More)
Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2004, Médecins Sans Frontières-Switzerland has provided treatment and care for people living with HIV in Dawei, Myanmar. Renal function is routinely monitored in patients on tenofovir (TDF)-based antiretroviral treatment (ART), and this provides an opportunity to measure incidence and risk factors for renal dysfunction. METHODS We used(More)
BACKGROUND The refugee complexes of Dadaab, Kenya, and Dollo-Ado, Ethiopia, experienced measles outbreaks during June-November 2011, following a large influx of refugees from Somalia. METHODS Line-lists from health facilities were used to describe the outbreak in terms of age, sex, vaccination status, arrival date, attack rates (ARs), and case fatality(More)