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To compare and evaluate locomotion interfaces for users who are (virtually) moving on foot in VEs, we performed a study to characterize task behavior and task performance with different visual and locomotion interfaces. In both a computer-generated environment and a corresponding real environment, study participants walked to targets on walls and stopped as(More)
Previous research has shown that even low end-to-end latency can have adverse effects on performance in virtual environments (VE). This paper reports on an experiment investigating the effect of latency on other metrics of VE effectiveness: physiological response, simulator sickness, and self-reported sense of presence. The VE used in the study includes two(More)
Figure 1. A participant who believes he is aiming at the virtual game board directly in front of him. ABSTRACT Without force feedback, a head-mounted display user's avatar may penetrate virtual objects. Some virtual environment designers prevent visual interpenetration, making the assumption that prevention improves user experience. However, preventing(More)
A common measure of effectiveness of a virtual environment (VE) is the amount of presence it evokes in users. Presence is commonly defined as the sense of being there in a VE. There has been much debate about the best way to measure presence, and presence researchers need and have sought a measure that is reliable, valid, sensitive, and objective. We(More)
—When a virtual environment system prevents a user's avatar hand from penetrating virtual objects, the seen and felt positions of the hand separate. We propose a new method for reducing this position discrepancy as quickly as possible without introducing perceptible discrepancy between the seen and felt motion of the user's hand. We performed one user study(More)
This paper presents an experiment investigating the impact of behavior and responsiveness on social responses to virtual humans in an immersive virtual environment (IVE). A number of responses are investigated, including presence, copresence, and two physiological responses— heart rate and electrodermal activity (EDA). Our findings suggest that increasing(More)
This paper presents a technique to add the tactile cues of real buttons to virtual buttons displayed on mobile devices with touch screens. When the user's finger is on the display, tactile feedback coveys a feeling of button location and activation. We describe two implementations of the technique, using a personal digital assistant (PDA) and a pressure(More)
The problem of localizing specific anatomic structures using ultrasound (US) video is considered. This involves automatically determining when an US probe is acquiring images of a previously defined object of interest, during the course of an US examination. Localization using US is motivated by the increased availability of portable, low-cost US probes,(More)