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The demonstration and acceptance of dose response thresholds for genotoxins may have substantial implications for the setting of safe exposure levels. Here we test the hypothesis that direct-acting DNA reactive agents may exhibit thresholded dose responses. We examine the potential mechanisms involved in such thresholded responses, particularly in relation(More)
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these(More)
Recent evidence has challenged the default assumption that all DNA-reactive alkylating agents exhibit a linear dose-response. Emerging evidence suggests that the model alkylating agents methyl- and ethylmethanesulfonate and methylnitrosourea (MNU) and ethylnitrosourea observe a nonlinear dose-response with a no observed genotoxic effect level (NOGEL).(More)
p53 mutations and loss of heterozygosity have been commonly associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In this investigation, the p53 status of a Welsh population of Barrett's-associated oesophageal adenocarcinomas were fully characterised at the gene sequence, chromosomal, mRNA and protein levels. In total, 31 tumours were examined for p53 gene sequence(More)
Due to the unique physicochemical properties of nanomaterials (NM) and their unknown reactivity, the possibility of NM altering the optical properties of fluorometric/colorimetric probes that are used to measure their cyto- and genotoxicity may lead to inaccurate readings. This could have potential implications given that NM, such as ultrafine(More)
Barrett's oesophagus is a premalignant condition whose incidence is rising dramatically. Molecular markers are urgently needed to identify Barrett's patients at the highest risk of cancer progression. To this end, we have used a rapid molecular technique, restriction site mutation (RSM), to detect low-frequency mutations in the p53 tumour suppressor gene in(More)
Toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is often correlated with the physicochemical characteristics of the materials. However, some discrepancies are noted in in-vitro studies on quantum dots (QDs) with similar physicochemical properties. This is partly related to variations in cell type. In this study, we show that epithelial (BEAS-2B), fibroblast (HFF-1), and(More)
PURPOSE ARFs are a family of Ras-related GTP binding proteins, ARF6, in particular, is implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis. However, the role of ARF proteins in prostate cancer have yet to be investigated. METHODS Immunohistochemical staining for ARF6 was performed on a prostate cancer tissue microarray with patient matched normal specimens. (More)
In this study scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) has been utilised in conjunction with quantum dot labelling to interrogate the biomolecular composition of cell membranes. The technique overcomes the limits of optical diffraction found in standard fluorescence microscopy and also yields vital topographic information. The technique has been(More)
In this series of experiments, a novel protocol was developed whereby gastric cells were collected using endoscopic cytology brush techniques, and prepared, such that interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could be performed. In total, 80 distinct histological samples from 37 patients were studied using four chromosome probes (over 32,000(More)