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The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynon-2-enal (4-HNE) forms as a consequence of oxidative stress, and acts as a signaling molecule or, at superphysiological levels, as a toxicant. The steady-state concentration of the compound reflects the balance between its generation and its metabolism, primarily through glutathione conjugation. Using an RNAi-based(More)
Deposition and mobilization of fat in an organism are tightly controlled by multiple levels of endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation. Because these hormonal mechanisms ultimately act by affecting biochemical reactions of fat synthesis or utilization, obesity could be also modulated by altering directly the underlying lipid biochemistry. We have previously(More)
Acetylenic bonds are present in more than 600 naturally occurring compounds. Plant enzymes that catalyze the formation of the Delta12 acetylenic bond in 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid and the Delta12 epoxy group in 12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid were characterized, and two genes, similar in sequence, were cloned. When these complementary DNAs were expressed in(More)
Efficient handling of oxidative stress is critical for the survival of organisms. The orphan nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) is important in xenobiotic detoxification through its regulation of phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing/detoxifying enzymes and transporters. In this study we unexpectedly found that the expression of an activated human(More)
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones located within the brain are the final neuroendocrine output regulating the reproductive hormone axis. Their small number and scattered distribution in the hypothalamus make them particularly difficult to study in vivo. The Cre/loxP system is a valuable tool to delete genes in specific cells and tissues. We(More)
4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) mediates many pathological effects of oxidative and electrophilic stress and signals to activate cytoprotective gene expression regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). By exhibiting very high levels of 4-HNE-conjugating activity, the murine glutathione transferase alpha 4 (GSTA4-4) helps regulate cellular 4-HNE levels. To(More)
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in reproduction, although some of the mechanisms for its synthesis and release remain elusive. Progress in understanding the GnRH neurone has been hampered by the limited number and diffuse distribution of the neurone in the mammalian brain. Several stable GnRH-expressing cell lines have been developed(More)
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