Sharad Shrestha

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Memory CD8(+) T cells are an essential component of protective immunity. Signaling via mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in the regulation of the differentiation of effector and memory T cells. However, little is understood about the mechanisms that control mTOR activity, or the effector pathways regulated by mTOR. We describe here(More)
The interplay between effector T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg cells) is crucial for adaptive immunity, but how Treg cells control diverse effector responses is elusive. We found that the phosphatase PTEN links Treg cell stability to repression of type 1 helper T cell (TH1 cell) and follicular helper T cell (TFH cell) responses. Depletion of PTEN in(More)
gfp knockin have been described previously 13,14 , and have been backcrossed to the C57BL/6 background extensively. C57BL/6, CD45.1, Thy1.1, Rag1 –/– , Ifng –/– , CD4-dnTGFβRII, OT-II and scurfy mice (all on the C57BL/6 background) were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory. Wild-type controls were in the same genetic background and included(More)
Naive CD4+ T cells differentiate into diverse effector and regulatory lineages to orchestrate immunity and tolerance. Here we found that the differentiation of proinflammatory T helper type 1 (TH1) cells and anti-inflammatory Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) was reciprocally regulated by S1P1, a receptor for the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate(More)
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are crucial for germinal center (GC) formation and humoral adaptive immunity. Mechanisms underlying Tfh cell differentiation in peripheral and mucosal lymphoid organs are incompletely understood. We report here that mTOR kinase complexes 1 and 2 (mTORC1 and mTORC2) are essential for Tfh cell differentiation and GC reaction(More)
Naive T cells respond to antigen stimulation by exiting from quiescence and initiating clonal expansion and functional differentiation, but the control mechanism is elusive. Here we describe that Raptor-mTORC1-dependent metabolic reprogramming is a central determinant of this transitional process. Loss of Raptor abrogated T cell priming and T helper 2 (Th2)(More)
The immune system is a central determinant of organismal health. Functional immune responses require quiescent immune cells to rapidly grow, proliferate, and acquire effector functions when they sense infectious agents or other insults. Specialized metabolic programs are critical regulators of immune responses, and alterations in immune metabolism can cause(More)
The interplay between effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial for adaptive immunity, but how Treg control diverse effector responses is elusive. We found that the phosphatase PTEN links Treg stability to repression of TH1 and TFH (follicular helper) responses. Depletion of PTEN in Treg resulted in excessive TFH and germinal center responses and(More)
Alloreactive donor T cells are the driving force in the induction of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), yet little is known about T cell metabolism in response to alloantigens after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Here, we have demonstrated that donor T cells undergo metabolic reprograming after allogeneic HCT. Specifically, we employed a murine(More)
Regulatory T (Treg) cells respond to immune and inflammatory signals to mediate immunosuppression, but how the functional integrity of Treg cells is maintained under activating environments is unclear. Here we show that autophagy is active in Treg cells and supports their lineage stability and survival fitness. Treg cell–specific deletion of Atg7 or Atg5,(More)