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Some vagal afferent nerves are thought to mediate autonomic responses evoked by noxious oesophageal stimuli and participate in the perception of pain originating in the oesophagus. However, the vagal nociceptive nerve phenotypes implicated in this function have yet to be identified. In this study, nociceptive fibres were defined by the capacity to(More)
Sensitization of esophageal sensory afferents by inflammatory mediators plays an important role in esophageal nociception. We have shown esophageal mast cell activation induces long-lasting mechanical hypersensitivity in vagal nodose C-fibers. However, the roles of mast cell mediators and downstream ion channels in this process are unclear. Mast cell(More)
Bradykinin (BK) activates sensory nerves and causes hyperalgesia. Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is expressed in sensory nerves and mediates cold, mechanical, and chemical nociception. TRPA1 can be activated by BK. TRPA1 knockout mice show impaired responses to BK and mechanical nociception. However, direct evidence from sensory nerve terminals is(More)
Several esophageal pathologies are associated with an increased number of mast cells in the esophageal wall. We addressed the hypothesis that activation of esophageal mast cells leads to an increase in the excitability of local sensory C fibers. Guinea pigs were actively sensitized to ovalbumin. The mast cells in the esophagus were selectively activated ex(More)
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized with eosinophils and mast cells predominated allergic inflammation in the esophagus and present with esophageal dysfunctions such as dysphagia, food impaction, and heartburn. However, the underlying mechanism of esophageal dysfunctions is unclear. This study aims to determine whether neurons in the vagal(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Although the precise pathogenesis for the destruction of the intrahepatic biliary tract in a patient with biliary atresia (BA) is still unclear, it is known that progressive destruction of the intrahepatic biliary tract is responsible for poor long-term outcome after surgical treatment. In this study, the authors evaluated the expression(More)
Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is a newly defined cationic ion channel, which selectively expresses in primary sensory afferent nerve, and is essential in mediating inflammatory nociception. Our previous study demonstrated that TRPA1 plays an important role in tissue mast cell activation-induced increase in the excitability of esophageal vagal(More)
Sensitization of esophageal afferents plays an important role in esophageal nociception, but the mechanism is less clear. Our previous studies demonstrated that mast cell (MC) activation releases the preformed mediators histamine and tryptase, which play important roles in sensitization of esophageal vagal nociceptive C fibers. PGD2 is a lipid mediator(More)
Antigen challenge in sensitized guinea pig esophagus in vitro induces mast cell degranulation and histamine release. This study tests the hypothesis that antigen inhalation in vivo induces infiltration of the esophageal epithelium by mast cells and eosinophils via a histamine pathway. Actively sensitized guinea pigs were exposed to inhaled 0.1% ovalbumin.(More)
A vesicle system is described that possesses a pH-induced "breathing" feature and consists of a three-layered wall structure. The "breathing" feature consists of a highly reversible vesicle volume change by a factor of ca. 7, accompanied by diffusion of species into and out of the vesicles with a relaxation time of ca. 1 min. The triblock copolymer(More)