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Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus, is transmitted in a faecal-oral manner, and causes acute liver diseases in humans. The HEV capsid is made up of capsomeres consisting of homodimers of a single structural capsid protein forming the virus shell. These dimers are believed to protrude from the viral surface and to interact(More)
A Golgi-associated bi-lobed structure was previously found to be important for Golgi duplication and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei. To further understand its functions, comparative proteomics was performed on extracted flagellar complexes (including the flagellum and flagellum-associated structures such as the basal bodies and the bi-lobe) and(More)
P239, a truncated construct of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) ORF2 protein, has been proven able to bind with a chaperone, Grp78, in both an in vitro co-immune precipitation test and an in vivo cell model. We previously solved the crystal structure of E2s--the C-terminal domain of p239 involved in host interactions. In the present study, we built a 3D(More)
Live rotavirus vaccines that are effective in middle- and high-income countries have been found to be less immunogenic and effective in infants in resource-limited settings. The virus-like particle (VLP) approach is promising for rotavirus vaccine development, but challenges remain for VLP production at large scale. In this study, rotavirus capsid VP2 and(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis in humans, predominantly by contamination of food and water, and is characterized by jaundice and flu-like aches and pains. To date, no vaccines are commercially available to prevent the disease caused by HEV. Previously, we showed that a monoclonal antibody, 8C11, specifically recognizes a neutralizing(More)
Nuclear orphan receptor Nur77 has important roles in many biological processes. However, a physiological ligand for Nur77 has not been identified. Here, we report that the octaketide cytosporone B (Csn-B) is a naturally occurring agonist for Nur77. Csn-B specifically binds to the ligand-binding domain of Nur77 and stimulates Nur77-dependent(More)
Acute hepatitis E is still a major public health issue, especially in developing countries, and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection will likely only be preventable through prophylactic vaccines. In this review, we describe the lessons learnt from developing the first commercial hepatitis E vaccine (Hecolin), launched to market in China in 2012. The(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a non-enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, is a major cause of enteric hepatitis. Classified into the family Hepeviridae, HEV comprises four genotypes (genotypes 1-4), which belong to a single serotype. We describe a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 8G12, which equally recognizes all four genotypes of HEV, with ∼(More)
Human vaccines against three viruses use recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) as the antigen: hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis E virus. VLPs are excellent prophylactic vaccine antigens because they are self-assembling bionanoparticles (20 to 60 nm in diameter) that expose multiple epitopes on their surface and faithfully mimic the(More)
Wounds in fetal skin heal without scar, however the mechanism is unknown. We identified a novel group of E-cadherin positive cells in the blood of fetal and adult mice and named them "Dot cells". The percentage of Dot cells in E16.5 fetal mice blood is more than twenty times higher compared to adult blood. Dot cells also express integrin beta1, CD184, CD34,(More)