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[1] We develop and use a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4) emissions and consumption in high-latitude soils of the Northern Hemisphere have changed over the past century in response to observed changes in the region’s climate. We estimate that the net emissions of CH4 (emissions minus consumption) from(More)
[1] Terrestrial ecosystems of the northern high latitudes (above 50 N) exchange large amounts of CO2 and CH4 with the atmosphere each year. Here we use a process-based model to estimate the budget of CO2 and CH4 of the region for current climate conditions and for future scenarios by considering effects of permafrost dynamics, CO2 fertilization of(More)
Epithelial tissues covering the external and internal surface of a body are constantly under physical, chemical or biological assaults. To protect the epithelial tissues and maintain their homeostasis, multiple layers of immune defense mechanisms are required. Besides the epithelial tissue-resident immune cells that provide the first line of defense,(More)
The skin as the outmost epithelial tissue is under frequent physical, chemical, and biological assaults. To counter the assaults and maintain the local tissue homeostasis, the skin is stationed with various innate or innate-like lymphocytes such as γδT cells. Increasing evidence suggests that an intrathymically programmed process is involved in coordinated(More)
Chemokine receptor CCR10 is expressed by all intestinal IgA-producing plasma cells and is suggested to play an important role in positioning these cells in the lamina propria for proper IgA production to maintain intestinal homeostasis and protect against infection. However, interfering with CCR10 or its ligand did not impair intestinal IgA production under(More)
BACKGROUND CCR10 and CCL27 make up the most skin-specific chemokine receptor/ligand pair implicated in skin allergy and inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. This pair is thought to regulate the migration, maintenance, or both of skin T cells and is suggested to be therapeutic targets for treatment of skin diseases. However, the(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) 'preferentially' localize into barrier tissues, where they function in tissue protection but can also contribute to inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the establishment of ILCs in barrier tissues are poorly understood. Here we found that under steady-state conditions, ILCs in skin-draining lymph nodes (sLNs)(More)
The intestine harbors enormous numbers of commensal bacteria and is under frequent attack from food-borne pathogens and toxins. A properly regulated immune response is critical for homeostatic maintenance of commensals and for protection against infection and toxins in the intestine. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype antibodies function specifically in mucosal(More)
In this letter, the relationship between the change of the closed-loop optical path and the movement of two adjacent spherical mirrors in ring laser gyros is investigated by matrix optical approach. When one spherical mirror is pushed forward and the other is pulled backward to maintain the total length of the closed-loop optical path constant, an(More)