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Three-dimensional printing was used to fabricate various metallic structures by directly integrating a Br-containing vinyl-terminated initiator into the 3D resin followed by surface-initiated atomic-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and subsequent electroless plating. Cu- and Ni-coated complex structures, such as microlattices, hollow balls, and even(More)
Traffic has always been the infrastructure of national economic and social development. With the pace of urbanization unprecedented speedup and the increase of vehicle possessions, traffic congestion has become a big problem in modern cities. Regional traffic guidance system provides traffic information for road travelers in pre-trip and in on-trip, and(More)
BPEL can automate orchestrations for cross-organizational Web services; however, it meets a serious challenge from modeling human-intensive business activities. This paper distinguishes human-driven workflow from automated process, and uses state machine to model human-driven workflow, then transforms state machine-style workflow to BPEL process, finally(More)
Considering the necessity of alignment in practical applications of photolithography, distribution of complex amplitude of moiré fringe patterns that are produced in superposition of two gratings is analyzed in the viewpoint of Fourier Optics and the relationship between fringes and properties of these two gratings is concluded by means of an analysis(More)
This paper aims to deal with a four-quadrant gratings alignment method benefiting from phase demodulation for proximity lithography, which combines the advantages of interferometry with image processing. Both the mask alignment mark and the wafer alignment mark consist of four sets of gratings, which bring the convenience and simplification of realization(More)
In order to manifest high superiority and high efficiency of traffic guidance system, this paper analyzes the traffic guidance system by means of variable message signs, and studies dynamic regional guidance problems under the conditions of real-time traffic, and puts forward a regional traffic dynamic guidance algorithm. The algorithm balances traffic flow(More)
[reaction: see text] The electrophilic cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)-2-alken-1-ones in the presence of various alcohols or carbon-based nucleophiles offers an efficient and straightforward route to highly substituted iodofurans under extremely mild reaction conditions. The iodo derivatives are potential synthetic intermediates for amplification of molecular(More)
On account of in situ cross-linked reaction of epoxy SU-8 with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) and its strong reactive bonding ability with different pretreated substrates, we developed a simple universal one-step solution-based coating method for fast surface modification of various objects. Through this method, a layer of P4VP molecules with controllable(More)
Since accurate alignment is essential for projection lithography, an extended dual-grating based alignment scheme is proposed. This method is an extension of the basic dual-grating alignment model, the mechanism of which is explained to make it clear how the extended scheme performs in projection lithography. The framework of the extended alignment scheme(More)
Moiré interferometry is widely used as the precise metrology in many science and engineering fields. The schemes of moirés-based interferometry adopting diffraction gratings are presented in this paper for applications in a proximity lithographic system such as wafer-mask alignment, the in-plane twist angle adjustment, and tilts remediation. For the sake of(More)