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Two rhesus monkeys were trained to learn eight 4-item lists, each composed of 4 different photographs. Lists were trained in successive phases: A, A----B, A----B----C, and A----B----C----D. After List 4, retention, as measured by the method of savings, was, on average, 66% (range: 44-84%). Indeed, all 4 lists could be recalled reliably during a single(More)
Pigeons (Columba livia) learned 3-, 4- or 5-item lists prior to subset and wild card tests. On the latter, a novel item replaced 1 of the list items. Pigeons who learned 3-item lists responded accurately on all subset pairs (AB, BC, and AC) and on all types of 3-item wild card trials (WBC, AWC, & ABW). Pigeons who learned 4- and 5-item lists responded at(More)
What are the minimal conditions for the formation of chunks by a pigeon learning an arbitrary list? Experiment 1 compared the acquisition of two types of chunkable list (each composed of colors and achromatic geometric forms): A----B----C----D'----E' (or A'----B'----C'----D----E) and A----B----C'----D'----E' (or A'----B'----C----D----E). The first type of(More)
Can a group of items that a pigeon chunks on one list function as such on a second list? In Experiment 1, the ordinal position of the chunk was held constant across both lists. Following training on a list of colors and achromatic geometric forms (A----B----C----D'----E'), the integrity of the color chunk [A----B----C] was maintained on a list of five(More)
Three rhesus macaque monkeys were trained to produce novel 4-item lists (A-->B-->C-->D) on which all items were displayed from the start of training. Subjects were previously trained to produce 4-item lists by adding one item at a time (A, A-->B, A-->B-->C, and A-->B-->C-->D; lists K. B. Swartz et al., 1991). Those lists could be mastered by responding to(More)
This paper studies an online retail supply chain that includes one referral infomediary and one retailer, in which the infomediary provides demand referral service to retailers and incentive rebates to customers. A linear dual-channel demand with the effect of customer incentive and horizontal service cooperation model was established, and then the optimal(More)
Landscape Ecology is a new field of the macro-ecological research. Based on the principle of landscape ecology and supported by 3S technology, the landscape pattern of land use in Qichun County is quantitatively analyzed in this paper. This study mainly uses the data collected by GPS and the ERDAS IMAGINE 9.1 to deal with the satellite remote sensing image(More)
In this paper, a compact circular shaped microstrip monopole patch antenna is presented. The proposed antenna comprises a plane of three circles coincides with each other C-shaped rectangular slot element with another inverted C-shaped shaped rectangular slot introduced inside circular patch which offer tri band. The impedance bandwidth can be tuned by(More)
We report the experimental observation and theoretical explanation of an unconventional interplay between divalent Co and trivalent Y dopants, both of which incur oxygen vacancies in the CeO2 host that has predominantly tetravalent Ce cations. The Co dopant atoms were experimentally found to act as a switch that turns on the dormant effect of Y-modulated(More)
The electromagnetic waves (EWs) propagation on the rough sea surface simulated by the parabolic equation (PE) method is presented in this paper. The sea surface is simulated by the Elfouhaily spectrum and Longuet-Higgins model. In this sea surface propagation model, the relations between the effects of the rough sea surface on the EWs propagation and the(More)