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Expulsion is an important phenomenon in resistance spot welding. It involves loss of metal from the liquid nugget, which often results in the reduction of weld strength. Various models have been proposed to understand expulsion mechanisms. In these models the occurrence of expulsion is often treated as a deterministic event, and depicted by a line(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human proteins are the primary protein capture reagents for basic research, diagnosis, and molecular therapeutics. The 2 most important attributes of mAbs used in all of these applications are their specificity and avidity. While specificity of a mAb raised against a human protein can be readily defined based on its(More)
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