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Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500 Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement(More)
In the basal chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma), somites extend the full length of the body. The anteriormost somites segment during the gastrula and neurula stages from dorsolateral grooves of the archenteron. The remaining ones pinch off, one at a time, from the tail bud. These posterior somites appear to be homologous to those of vertebrates, even though(More)
Co-option of RAG1 and RAG2 for antigen receptor gene assembly by V(D)J recombination was a crucial event in the evolution of jawed vertebrate adaptive immunity. RAG1/2 are proposed to have arisen from a transposable element, but definitive evidence for this is lacking. Here, we report the discovery of ProtoRAG, a DNA transposon family from lancelets, the(More)
BACKGROUND The caspase family, which plays a central role in apoptosis in metazoans, has undergone an expansion in amphioxus, increasing to 45 members through domain recombination and shuffling. RESULTS In order to shed light on the conservation and uniqueness of this family in amphioxus, we cloned three representative caspase genes, designated as(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide radiographic parameters for optimal placement of posterior second sacral alar iliac (S2AI) screw for instrumentation and fusion of scoliosis to the second sacral level in a Chinese population. METHODS S2AI screw trajectories were mapped on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) reconstructions of 60 normal adult pelvises. 1 mm(More)
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