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We have examined whether the development of embryonic muscle fiber type is regulated by competing influences between Hedgehog and TGF-beta signals, as previously shown for development of neuronal cell identity in the neural tube. We found that ectopic expression of Hedgehogs or inhibition of protein kinase A in zebrafish embryos induces slow muscle(More)
Buffering extracellular pH at the site of a spinal cord crush-injury may stimulate axonal regeneration in rats (1; Guth et al., Exp. Neurol. 88: 44-55, 1985). We demonstrated in cultured astrocytes that acidic pH initiates a rapid increase in immunoreactivity for GFAP (GFAP-IR), a hallmark of reactive gliosis (2; Oh et al., Glia 13: 319-322, 1995). We(More)
Normal migration of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones during early development, from the olfactory region to the hypothalamus, is crucial for reproductive development in all vertebrates. The establishment of the GnRH system includes tangential migration of GnRH perikarya as well as extension of GnRH fibres to various areas of the central(More)
Smyd1b is a member of the Smyd family that is specifically expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Smyd1b plays a key role in thick filament assembly during myofibrillogenesis in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. To better characterize Smyd1b function and its mechanism of action in myofibrillogenesis, we analyzed the effects of smyd1b knockdown on(More)
Zebrafish tiggy-winkle hedgehog (twhh) is a member of the hedgehog gene family that plays an important role in patterning brain, neural tube, somites, and eyes. To better understand the regulation of its tissue-specific expression, the activity of the twhh promoter was determined in zebrafish embryos by transient and transgenic expression analysis.(More)
BACKGROUND Myofibrillogenesis requires the correct folding and assembly of sarcomeric proteins into highly organized sarcomeres. Heat shock protein 90alpha1 (Hsp90alpha1) has been implicated as a myosin chaperone that plays a key role in myofibrillogenesis. Knockdown or mutation of hsp90alpha1 resulted in complete disorganization of thick and thin filaments(More)
BACKGROUND Smyd1, the founding member of the Smyd family including Smyd-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, is a SET and MYND domain containing protein that plays a key role in myofibril assembly in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that zebrafish genome contains two highly related smyd1 genes, smyd1a and smyd1b. Although Smyd1b function is well(More)
BACKGROUND Smyd1b is a member of the Smyd family that plays a key role in sarcomere assembly during myofibrillogenesis. Smyd1b encodes two alternatively spliced isoforms, smyd1b_tv1 and smyd1b_tv2, that are expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles and play a vital role in myofibrillogenesis in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
Fhod3 is a cardiac member of the formin family proteins that play pivotal roles in actin filament assembly in various cellular contexts. The targeted deletion of mouse Fhod3 gene leads to defects in cardiogenesis, particularly during myofibrillogenesis, followed by lethality at embryonic day (E) 11.5. However, it remains largely unknown how Fhod3 functions(More)
Heat shock protein 90α plays a key role in myosin folding and thick filament assembly in muscle cells. To assess the structure and function of Hsp90α and its potential regulation by post-translational modification, we developed a combined knockdown and rescue assay in zebrafish embryos to systematically analyze the effects of various mutations on Hsp90α(More)