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Bilayer synthesis during membrane biogenesis involves the concerted assembly of multiple lipid species, requiring coordination of the level of lipid synthesis, uptake, turnover, and subcellular distribution. In this review, we discuss some of the salient conclusions regarding the coordination of lipid synthesis that have emerged from work in mammalian and(More)
Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target and kill HIV-infected cells expressing cognate viral epitopes. This response selects for escape mutations within CTL epitopes that can diminish viral replication fitness. Here, we assess the fitness impact of escape mutations emerging in seven CTL epitopes in the gp120 Env(More)
Induction of virus-specific CD8⁺ T cell responses is critical for the success of vaccines against chronic viral infections. Despite the large number of potential MHC-I-restricted epitopes located in viral proteins, MHC-I-restricted epitope generation is inefficient, and factors defining the production and presentation of MHC-I-restricted viral epitopes are(More)
Viruses evade immune detection partly through immune-associated mutations. Analyses of HIV sequences derived from infected individuals have identified numerous examples of HLA-associated mutations within or adjacent to T cell epitopes, but the potential impact of most mutations on epitope production and presentation remains unclear. The multistep breakdown(More)
An important role of IgG antibodies in the defense against microbial infections is to promote the ingestion and killing of microbes by phagocytes. Here, we developed in vivo and in vitro approaches to ask whether opsonization of particles with IgG enhances intracellular targeting of lysosomes to phagosomes. To eliminate the effect of IgG on the ingestion(More)
Fusion of phagosomes with late endocytic organelles is essential for cellular digestion of microbial pathogens, senescent cells, apoptotic bodies, and retinal outer segment fragments. To further elucidate the biochemistry of the targeting process, we developed a scintillation proximity assay to study the stepwise association of lysosomes and phagosomes in(More)
Phagocytes, such as macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, play important roles in the innate immune system through their ability to engulf, kill, and digest invading microbes. In cooperation with the humoral adaptive immune system, coating of substrates with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies enhances several aspects of phagocytosis, including the(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Møs) internalize and process exogenous HIV-derived antigens for cross-presentation by MHC-I to cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cells (CTL). However, how degradation patterns of HIV antigens in the cross-presentation pathways affect immunodominance and immune escape is poorly defined. Here, we studied the processing and(More)
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