Shao Chong Zhang

Learn More
Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target and kill HIV-infected cells expressing cognate viral epitopes. This response selects for escape mutations within CTL epitopes that can diminish viral replication fitness. Here, we assess the fitness impact of escape mutations emerging in seven CTL epitopes in the gp120 Env(More)
Viruses evade immune detection partly through immune-associated mutations. Analyses of HIV sequences derived from infected individuals have identified numerous examples of HLA-associated mutations within or adjacent to T cell epitopes, but the potential impact of most mutations on epitope production and presentation remains unclear. The multistep breakdown(More)
Tob is a member of the PC3/ BTG1/Tob family of vertebrate tumor suppressor genes; its expression is known to inhibit proliferation of cells in vitro, but its possible roles during normal development have not been investigated previously. The present study concerns the structure and developmental expression of AmphiTob in an invertebrate chordate, amphioxus.(More)
Fusion of phagosomes with late endocytic organelles is essential for cellular digestion of microbial pathogens, senescent cells, apoptotic bodies, and retinal outer segment fragments. To further elucidate the biochemistry of the targeting process, we developed a scintillation proximity assay to study the stepwise association of lysosomes and phagosomes in(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Møs) internalize and process exogenous HIV-derived antigens for cross-presentation by MHC-I to cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cells (CTL). However, how degradation patterns of HIV antigens in the cross-presentation pathways affect immunodominance and immune escape is poorly defined. Here, we studied the processing and(More)
  • 1