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Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a clinically validated serum biomarker that distinguishes relapsing central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disorders related to NMO from multiple sclerosis. This autoantibody targets astrocytic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels. Clinical, radiological, and immunopathological data suggest(More)
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that typically affects optic nerves and spinal cord. Its pathogenic relationship to multiple sclerosis (MS) is uncertain. Unlike MS, NMO lesions are characterized by deposits of IgG and IgM co-localizing with products of complement activation in a vasculocentric pattern around thickened(More)
Distinction between acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and acute multiple sclerosis is often clinically difficult. Perivenous demyelination is the pathological hallmark of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas confluent demyelination is the hallmark of acute multiple sclerosis. We investigated whether perivenous demyelination versus confluent(More)
BACKGROUND Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome and breast carcinoma were initially described as neurologic and oncologic accompaniments of antineuronal nuclear autoantibody type 2 (ANNA-2, also known as anti-Ri). However, the neurologic spectrum of ANNA-2 autoimmunity is broader, includes a syndrome of jaw dystonia and laryngospasm, and can be accompanied by lung(More)
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that typically affects optic nerves and spinal cord. Its pathogenic relationship to multiple sclerosis (MS) is uncertain.Unlike MS, NMO lesions are characterized by deposits of IgG and IgM co-localizing with products of complement activation in a vasculocentric pattern around thickened(More)
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