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BACKGROUND Childhood maltreatment has been linked to a variety of changes in brain structure and function and stress-responsive neurobiological systems. Epidemiological studies have documented the impact of childhood maltreatment on health and emotional well-being. METHODS After a brief review of the neurobiology of childhood trauma, we use the Adverse(More)
OBJECTIVE Illicit drug use is identified in Healthy People 2010 as a leading health indicator because it is associated with multiple deleterious health outcomes, such as sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, viral hepatitis, and numerous social problems among adolescents and adults. Improved understanding of the influence of stressful(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the long-term consequences of CSA have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Thus, a comparison of the long-term effects of CSA by gender of the victim will provide perspective on the need for future research, prevention activities, and(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which depression and anxiety are associated with smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption in the US population using the Patient Health Questionnaire 8 (PHQ-8) and two questions on lifetime diagnosis of anxiety and depression. METHODS Data were analyzed in 38 states, the(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the relation between eight types of adverse childhood experience (ACE) and three indicators of impaired worker performance (serious job problems, financial problems, and absenteeism). METHODS We analyzed data collected for the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study from 9633 currently employed adult members of the Kaiser Foundation(More)
BACKGROUND To assess the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including childhood abuse and neglect, and serious household dysfunction, and premature death of a family member. Because ACEs increase the risk for many of the leading causes of death in adults and tend to be familial and intergenerational, we hypothesized that persons who(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether childhood traumatic stress increased the risk of developing autoimmune diseases as an adult. METHODS Retrospective cohort study of 15,357 adult health maintenance organization members enrolled in the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study from 1995 to 1997 in San Diego, California, and eligible for follow-up through 2005.(More)
OBJECTIVES Few reports address the impact of cumulative exposure to childhood abuse and family dysfunction on teen pregnancy and consequences commonly attributed to teen pregnancy. Therefore, we examined whether adolescent pregnancy increased as types of adverse childhood experiences (ACE score) increased and whether ACEs or adolescent pregnancy was the(More)
OBJECTIVE The study examined how growing up with alcoholic parents and having adverse childhood experiences are related to the risk of alcoholism and depression in adulthood. METHODS In this retrospective cohort study, 9,346 adults who visited a primary care clinic of a large health maintenance organization completed a survey about nine adverse childhood(More)
Betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1996) postulates childhood abuse perpetrated by a caregiver or someone close to the victim results in worse mental health than abuse perpetrated by a noncaregiver. Using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) data, we tested whether adults with high betrayal (HB) abuse would report poorer functional and mental health than low(More)