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Macrophages play pivotal roles in the progression of atherosclerosis (AS) and their heterogeneous differentiation patterns have been studied extensively. The classical subtype of activated macrophage, M1, promotes the progression of AS. Conversely, the alternative subtype of activated macrophage, M2, is regarded as a repressor of AS. Homocysteine (Hcy) may(More)
Irisin, which was recently identified as a myokine and an adipokine, transforms white adipose tissue to brown adipose tissue and has increasingly caught the attention of the medical and scientific community. However, the signaling pathway of irisin and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the lipolysis effect remain unclear. In this study, we(More)
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a signature cytokine of Th17 cells. Previous research has indicated that IL-17 plays a proinflammatory role by exacerbating interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced inflammation. However, prior to this study, it was not known whether inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2), a signature molecule of inflammation, could be intensified by(More)
SNAI1, a zinc-finger transcription factor, plays an important role in the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in various cancers. However, the possible functions of SNAI1 in the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma have not been clearly identified. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of SNAI1 in the(More)
The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether high sodium levels can directly promote the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Additional sodium chloride (NaCl) was added to the routine culture medium. Cell proliferation was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium(More)
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