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Epidemiological observations in malaria endemic areas have long suggested a deficiency in the generation and maintenance of B cell memory to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) in individuals chronically reinfected with the parasite. Recently, a functionally and phenotypically distinct population of FCRL4(+) hyporesponsive memory B cells (MBCs) was reported to be(More)
Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria is only acquired after years of repeated infections and wanes rapidly without ongoing parasite exposure. Antibodies are central to malaria immunity, yet little is known about the B-cell biology that underlies the inefficient acquisition of Pf-specific humoral immunity. This year-long prospective study in Mali(More)
Access efficiency and energy conservation are two critical performance concerns in a wireless data broadcast system. We propose in this paper a novel parameterized index called the exponential index that has a linear yet distributed structure for wireless data broadcast. Based on two tuning knobs, index base and chunk size, the exponential index can be(More)
Although data forwarding algorithms are among the first set of the most important issues explored in sensor networks, how to efficiently and reliably deliver sensing data through a large field of sensors remains a research challenge. Multi-path is favorite alternative for sensor networks, as it provides an easy mechanism to distribute traffic and balance(More)
Chemokines play a key role in the regulation of central nervous system disease. CXCL10 over-expression has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and HIV-associated dementia. More recent studies by others and us have shown that CXCL10 elicits apoptosis in fetal neurons. The mechanism of(More)
BACKGROUND Antibodies that protect against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria are only acquired after years of repeated infections. The B cell biology that underlies this observation is poorly understood. We previously reported that "atypical" memory B cells are increased in children and adults exposed to intense Pf transmission in Mali, similar to what has(More)
Protective antibodies in Plasmodium falciparum malaria are only acquired after years of repeated infections. Chronic malaria exposure is associated with a large increase in atypical memory B cells (MBCs) that resemble B cells expanded in a variety of persistent viral infections. Understanding the function of atypical MBCs and their relationship to classical(More)
With the development of the mobile communication technology and P2P, a combination of mobile computing and P2P, MP2P, has revealed its attractions. Compared to traditional P2P, characteristics of MP2P include unreliable connection, limited bandwidth and constrains of mobile devices. Although there have existed some classic lookup protocols for traditional(More)
The development of clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is thought to require years of parasite exposure, a delay often attributed to difficulties in developing protective antibody levels. In this study, we evaluated several P. falciparum vaccine candidate antigens, including apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), circumsporozoite protein (CSP),(More)
Memory B cells (MBCs) are a key component of long term humoral immunity to many human infectious diseases. Despite their importance, we know little about the generation or maintenance of antigen-(Ag)-specific MBCs in humans in response to infection. A frequently employed method for quantifying Ag-specific MBCs in human peripheral blood (Crotty et al., 2004)(More)