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An ATP diphosphohydrolase (EC 3.6.1.5) from the pancreas of the pig has been characterized and purified. The enzyme which has an optimum pH between 8 and 9 is specific for diphospho- and triphosphonucleosides. The Km values for ADP and ATP are 7.4 and 7.3 x 10(-4) M, respectively, and the purified enzyme has specific activities of 13 and 15.2 mumol of(More)
PGE2 is a powerful modulator of uterine contractility, but there is uncertainty as to which receptor subtypes (EP1, EP2, EP3, or EP4), G proteins, and second messenger systems are activated by PGE2 in myometrium. Here we show that in cultured human myometrial cells, PGE2 (1-100 microM) activates phospholipase C (PLC) up to 500% over the control level and(More)
The precise factors involved in the transition of the relaxed pregnant uterus to the contractile state at the onset of parturition remain unclear, but it is accepted that cAMP-generating pathways contribute to uterine relaxation. We have previously reported an increased expression of the adenylyl cyclase (AC)-stimulating protein Galphas in human myometrium(More)
We have previously reported that G alpha s is expressed at considerably higher levels in myometrium taken from pregnant than from nonpregnant women. In the present study we have determined adenylyl cyclase activity in myometrial membranes by measuring the conversion of [alpha-32P]ATP to [32P]cAMP and have measured guanosine triphosphate-binding protein(More)
The reported effects of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) on human myometrium support the existence of specific receptors for the hormone in this tissue. We have used the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique to study the expression of mRNA coding for the CRH R1 and R2 receptors. RT-PCR of total RNA from both nonpregnant(More)
Oxytocin is used widely for the induction and augmentation of labour, but there is little information about the dynamics of oxytocin receptors in human myometrium during parturition, and the possible effect of oxytocin infusion. This information is important because G protein-coupled receptors, such as the oxytocin receptor, undergo desensitization after(More)
A physiological role for oxytocin in stimulating uterine contractions during labour is well accepted, but has not yet been well defined. Oxytocin activates phospholipase C to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, which releases Ca2+ from intracellular stores. There is considerable evidence that G-proteins are involved in this signalling pathway. The(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that urocortin is the ligand that displaces corticotropin-releasing hormone from its binding protein in the maternal circulation during pregnancy and, if so, to determine whether urocortin, like corticotropin-releasing hormone, is synthesized in substantial quantities in the placenta. (More)
Parturition results from the establishment of phasic regular uterine contractions. Contractility in myometrial smooth muscle is stimulated by an increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+i]) which activates myosin light chain phosphorylation leading to increased myosin ATPase activity and enhanced rate of acto-myosin cross bridge formation. G proteins play a(More)
Phosphoinositide hydrolysis is important in mediating the actions of oxytocin and prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha on uterine contractions during labour. We have measured the effect of oxytocin, PGF2 alpha and other agents on the formation of inositol phosphates (IPs) in cultured human myometrial cells labelled with [3H]inositol and on changes in intracellular(More)