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Literature assessing whether or not neurons (retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells) are lost from the retinal ganglion cell layer in mammals with age is still controversial, some studies finding a decrease in cell density and others not. To date there have been no studies estimating the total number of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell(More)
Here we provide confirmation that the 'ramp retina' of the horse, once thought to result in head rotating visual behaviour, does not exist. We found a 9% variation in axial length of the eye between the streak region and the dorsal periphery. However, the difference was in the opposite direction to that proposed for the 'ramp retina'. Furthermore, acuity in(More)
The development of neural cell topography in the retinal ganglion cell layer was examined in a teleost, the black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri). From Nissl-stained wholemounts, it was established that fish between 10 and 15 mm standard body length (SL) possess high cell densities throughout the dorso-temporal retinal quadrant, with peak cell densities(More)
PURPOSE To determine how regional cell density of this tissue changes with age, the authors examined the topography of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in wholemounted tissue obtained from eyes aged 12 to 89 years, donated for corneas. METHODS The RPE, with choroid attached, was wholemounted and stained with cresyl violet. From these(More)
The link between mechanics and biology in the generation and the adaptation of bone has been well studied in context of skeletal development and fracture healing. Yet, the prediction of tissue genesis within - and the spatiotemporal healing of - postnatal defects, necessitates a quantitative evaluation of mechano-biological interactions using experimental(More)
PURPOSE Pluripotent cells residing in the periosteum, a bi-layered membrane enveloping all bones, exhibit a remarkable regenerative capacity to fill in critical sized defects of the ovine femur within two weeks of treatment. Harnessing the regenerative power of the periosteum appears to be limited only by the amount of healthy periosteum available. Here we(More)
Due to lack of access in healthy patients, the structural properties underlying the inherent regenerative power and advanced material properties of the human periosteum are not well understood. Periosteum comprises a cellular cambium layer directly apposing the outer surface of bone and an outer fibrous layer encompassed by the surrounding soft tissues. As(More)
In conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, degenerative events in the retina are associated with neovascularisation. It is well established that a proportion of retinal ganglion cells die during optic nerve regeneration in the frog. The present study has determined whether neovascularisation takes place during this regenerative process. To do so, the(More)
Patterns of vascularisation were examined in whole-mounted retinae from tadpole stages to adulthood in the tree frog Litoria moorei using perfusion with Indian ink. Changing cell densities in the underlying ganglion cell layer were studied in a parallel Cresyl-stained series. Throughout development, the vasculature was pan-retinal and the hyaloid vessel was(More)
During adult life, the topography of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the quokka wallaby changes gradually. Cells in peripheral retina enlarge in surface area while those in mid-temporal retina, adjacent to the area centralis, a high density region in the ganglion cell layer, decrease in area, implying that the tissue in this area is drawing(More)