Shannon R. Galvin

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Identifying the specific genetic characteristics of successfully transmitted variants may prove central to the development of effective vaccine and microbicide interventions. Although human immunodeficiency virus transmission is associated with a population bottleneck, the extent to which different factors influence the diversity of transmitted viruses is(More)
More than 42 million people worldwide are now infected with HIV, in spite of sustained prevention activities. Although the spread of HIV has been primarily sexual, epidemiological studies have indicated that the efficiency of the spread of HIV is poor, perhaps as infrequently as 1 in every 1,000 episodes of sexual intercourse. However, sexually transmitted(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to compare viral dynamics in blood and semen between subjects with antibody negative, acute HIV-1 infection and other subjects with later stages of infection. DESIGN A prospective cohort study was embedded within a cross-sectional study of HIV screening in a Lilongwe, Malawi STD clinic. METHODS Blood samples from HIV(More)
Inability to recognize incident infection has traditionally limited both scientific and public health approaches to HIV disease. Recently, some laboratories have begun adding HIV nucleic acid amplification testing to HIV diagnostic testing algorithms so that acute (antibody-negative) HIV infections can be routinely detected within the first 1-3 weeks of(More)
OBJECTIVE Individuals with acute (preseroconversion) HIV infection (AHI) are important in the spread of HIV. The identification of AHI requires the detection of viral proteins or nucleic acids with techniques that are often unaffordable for routine use. To facilitate the efficient use of these tests, we sought to develop a risk score algorithm for(More)
BACKGROUND Acute (antibody-negative) HIV infection is associated with high transmission potential but is rarely recognized. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS We examined the prevalence and predictors of acute HIV infection among 1361 consecutive male outpatients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD; n = 929) and dermatology (n = 432) clinics(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced inflammation and immune activation persist after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and HIV suppression and may contribute to mortality risks that exceed those in HIV-uninfected populations, though associations are unclear. METHODS In the prospective Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study,(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this article is to review recent findings about HIV in the genital tract. HIV is primarily a sexually transmitted disease, and the efficiency of transmission must reflect the biology of the genital tract. In addition, it has become increasingly clear that the male and female genital tract represent a unique reservoir that(More)
A process evaluation of nurses' implementation of an infant-feeding counseling protocol was conducted for the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral and Nutrition (BAN) Study, a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Six trained nurses counseled HIV-infected mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 24 weeks postpartum and(More)