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BACKGROUND Acute (antibody-negative) HIV infection is associated with high transmission potential but is rarely recognized. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS We examined the prevalence and predictors of acute HIV infection among 1361 consecutive male outpatients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD; n = 929) and dermatology (n = 432) clinics(More)
Inability to recognize incident infection has traditionally limited both scientific and public health approaches to HIV disease. Recently, some laboratories have begun adding HIV nucleic acid amplification testing to HIV diagnostic testing algorithms so that acute (antibody-negative) HIV infections can be routinely detected within the first 1-3 weeks of(More)
More than 42 million people worldwide are now infected with HIV, in spite of sustained prevention activities. Although the spread of HIV has been primarily sexual, epidemiological studies have indicated that the efficiency of the spread of HIV is poor, perhaps as infrequently as 1 in every 1,000 episodes of sexual intercourse. However, sexually transmitted(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to compare viral dynamics in blood and semen between subjects with antibody negative, acute HIV-1 infection and other subjects with later stages of infection. DESIGN A prospective cohort study was embedded within a cross-sectional study of HIV screening in a Lilongwe, Malawi STD clinic. METHODS Blood samples from HIV(More)
OBJECTIVE Individuals with acute (preseroconversion) HIV infection (AHI) are important in the spread of HIV. The identification of AHI requires the detection of viral proteins or nucleic acids with techniques that are often unaffordable for routine use. To facilitate the efficient use of these tests, we sought to develop a risk score algorithm for(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this article is to review recent findings about HIV in the genital tract. HIV is primarily a sexually transmitted disease, and the efficiency of transmission must reflect the biology of the genital tract. In addition, it has become increasingly clear that the male and female genital tract represent a unique reservoir that(More)
China has an ethnically diverse population. Genetic differences may contribute to disparities in the efficiency of HIV transmission. To further characterize this risk, we examined the HIV-related genetic diversity in the predominant Han Chinese and in six minority groups. We searched for the delta32-CCR5 mutation, a common cause of relative HIV resistance(More)
A process evaluation of nurses' implementation of an infant-feeding counseling protocol was conducted for the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral and Nutrition (BAN) Study, a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Six trained nurses counseled HIV-infected mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 24 weeks postpartum and(More)
Acute HIV infection The natural history of HIV infection encompasses an acute/pri-mary phase that lasts months, followed by an early/clinically latent phase that typically lasts 3–10 years, and ultimately by the immune collapse characterized by AIDS. " Acute " HIV infection best describes the interval during which HIV can be detected in blood serum and(More)