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Insects use taste to evaluate food, hosts, and mates. Drosophila has many "orphan" taste neurons that express no known taste receptors. The Ionotropic Receptor (IR) superfamily is best known for its role in olfaction, but virtually nothing is known about a clade of ∼35 members, the IR20a clade. Here, a comprehensive analysis of this clade reveals expression(More)
We examine in Drosophila a group of ∼35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), the IR20a clade, about which remarkably little is known. Of 28 genes analyzed, GAL4 drivers representing 11 showed expression in the larva. Eight drivers labeled neurons of the pharynx, a taste organ, and three labeled neurons of the body wall that may be chemosensory. Expression was not(More)
The factors associated with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis were investigated in a pilot study of 23 male patients over a period of 29 months. There were 63 exacerbations-56 were fully investigated and in seven only serological studies were possible. Evidence of the presence of an infective agent was sought in the early stages of the exacerbations and(More)
and saliva. The levels of amoxy-cillin in sputum, saliva, and serum from 22 patients were estimated. Fifteen patients had pneumonia and seven had acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The drug was given orally in a dose of 500 mg four times daily. There was considerable variation in the levels in specimens from different patients. The mean sputum(More)
We review our experience treating patients with medically refractory frontal sinusitis that could not be relieved with endoscopic intranasal surgery alone. Fourteen combined external and intranasal endoscopic frontal sinusotomies were performed on a consecutive sample of 11 patients presenting over a 38-month period of study. Postoperative results were(More)
Six male patients with chronic bronchitis, who were known previously to have excreted Streptococcus pneumoniae and/or Haemophilus influenzae, both at the times of exacerbations and during remission, were studied for 43 to 52 months. Sputum was examined fortnightly and at the time of exacerbations. Strains of Strep. pneumoniae were serotyped and those of(More)
Utilizing a random probability sample of Canadian residents aged 15-64 (n = 8116), this study assessed gender differences in the onset of social phobia and the moderating influence of gender on indicators of childhood family adversity hypothesized to increase the risk of developing the disorder. Results revealed statistically significant "gender by family(More)