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Serum antibody (Ab) can play several roles during B cell immune responses. Among these is to promote the deposition of immune complexes (ICs) on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). ICs on FDCs are generally thought to be critical for normal germinal center (GC) formation and the development and selection of memory B cells. However, it has been very difficult(More)
The study of murine memory B cells has been limited by small cell numbers and the lack of a definitive marker. We have addressed some of these difficulties with hapten-specific transgenic (Tg) mouse models that yield relatively large numbers of antigen-specific memory B cells upon immunization. Using these models, along with a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)(More)
The paucity of murine memory B cell markers has been a significant impediment to the study of memory. The most commonly used marker is IgG, which is neither sensitive nor specific, because activated nonmemory cells can be IgG(+), and memory cells can be IgM(+). In this article, we show that, together, PD-L2 (CD273), CD80, and CD73 define at least five(More)
Memory B cells play essential roles in the maintenance of long-term immunity and may be important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, but how these cells are distinguished from their naive precursors is poorly understood. To address this, it would be important to understand how gene expression differs between memory and naive B cells to elucidate(More)
B lymphocytes producing high-affinity Abs are critical for protection from extracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and parasites. The process by which high-affinity B cells are selected during the immune response has never been elucidated. Although it has been shown that high-affinity cells directly outcompete low-affinity cells in the germinal center(More)
Germinal center (GC) B cells and T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells interact in the production of high-affinity long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells, although the mechanisms regulating the formation of these long-lived populations remain unclear. Because CD80 is one of the few markers shared by human and murine memory B cells, we investigated its(More)
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