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In May of 2011, an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain that had acquired a Shiga toxin 2-converting phage caused a large outbreak of bloody diarrhea in Europe which was notable for its high prevalence of hemolytic uremic syndrome cases. Several studies have described the genomic inventory and phylogenies of strains associated with the outbreak… (More)
Thin, vertically structured topsoil communities that become ecologically important in arid regions (biological soil crusts or BSCs) are responsible for much of the nitrogen inputs into pristine arid lands. We studied N(2) fixation and ammonium oxidation (AO) at subcentimetre resolution within BSCs from the Colorado Plateau. Pools of dissolved porewater… (More)
The objective of the study was to establish primary cultured porcine brain microvessel endothelial cells (PBMECs) as an in vitro model to predict the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in vivo. The intercellular tight junction formation of PBMECs was examined by electron microscopy and measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). The mRNA… (More)
We present the genome assembly of Ralstonia pickettii K-288 (ATCC 27511), consisting of 27 contigs placed into a single scaffold. This 4.76-Mbp genome has 64.0% G+C content and 4,425 coding sequences. Because this is the type strain, inclusion of its data set among other Ralstonia genomes should provide a historical genomic perspective.
Second only to water among limiting factors, nitrogen controls the fertility of most arid regions. Where dry and wet depositions are weak, as in the western US deserts, N inputs rely heavily on biological N(2) fixation. Topsoil cyanobacterial communities known as biological soil crusts (BSCs) are major N(2) fixation hot spots in arid lands, but the fate of… (More)
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to the Caucasus region but few reference strain genome sequences from that region are available. Here, we present the improved draft or finished assembled genomes from 11 strains isolated in the nation of Georgia and surrounding countries.
An emerging nosocomial pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophila has a high mortality rate in those it infects. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 810-2 (ATCC 13637), the type strain of the species. The 5-Mb (66.1% G+C content) genome has been deposited in NCBI under accession number CP008838.
The impact of 10 years of annual foot trampling on soil biocrusts was examined in replicated field experiments at three cold desert sites of the Colorado Plateau, USA. Trampling detrimentally impacted lichens and mosses, and the keystone cyanobacterium, Microcoleus vaginatus, resulting in increased soil erosion and reduced C and N concentrations in surface… (More)
Vaccination to protect against human infectious diseases may be enhanced by using adjuvants that can selectively stimulate immunoregulatory responses. In a murine model, a novel nanoparticulate adjuvant composed of calcium phosphate (CAP) was compared with the commonly used aluminum (alum) adjuvants for its ability to induce immunity to herpes simplex virus… (More)
The majority of microbial genomic diversity remains unexplored. This is largely due to our inability to culture most microorganisms in isolation, which is a prerequisite for traditional genome sequencing. Single-cell sequencing has allowed researchers to circumvent this limitation. DNA is amplified directly from a single cell using the whole-genome… (More)