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BACKGROUND Directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) in methadone clinics has the potential to improve treatment outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected injection drug users (IDUs). METHODS DAART was provided at 3 urban methadone clinics. Eighty-two participants who were initiating or reinitiating highly active antiretroviral(More)
Supervised dosing is a cornerstone of tuberculosis treatment. HIV treatment strategies that use directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) are increasingly being assessed. In a prospective single-arm clinical trial, we enrolled methadone-maintained, HIV-infected participants to receive supervised doses of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on days when(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether observed changes in HIV prevalence in countries with generalised HIV epidemics are associated with changes in sexual risk behaviour. METHODS A mathematical model was developed to explore the relation between prevalence recorded at antenatal clinics (ANCs) and the pattern of incidence of infection throughout the population.(More)
BACKGROUND This paper brings together data from a variety of reports to provide a basis for assessing future steps for responding to and monitoring the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe. METHOD Data reported from four antenatal clinic (ANC) surveys conducted between 2000 and 2004, two small local studies in Zimbabwe conducted from 1997 through 2003, four general(More)
The District of Columbia (DC) has among the highest HIV/AIDS rates in the United States, with 3.2% of the population and 7.1% of black men living with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to examine HIV risk behaviors in a community-based sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in DC. Data were from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. MSM(More)
Methadone-maintenance treatment clinics are strategically appealing sites for provision of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected injection drug users (IDUs). We initiated an ongoing DAART protocol at a university-associated methadone clinic in April 2001, which continues to enroll(More)
CONTEXT During the past decade, knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in women has expanded considerably but may not be easily accessible for use in understanding and prioritizing the clinical needs of HIV-infected women. OBJECTIVES To perform a comprehensive review of epidemiologic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral information(More)
BACKGROUND A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of a directly administered antiretroviral therapy program (DAART) and intensive adherence case management (IACM) intervention on virologic and immunologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among patients at 3 public human immunodeficiency virus clinics in(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent data suggest that community viral load (CVL) can be used as a population-level biomarker for HIV transmission and its reduction may be associated with a decrease in HIV incidence. Given the magnitude of the HIV epidemic in Washington, District of Columbia, we sought to measure the District of Columbia's CVL. DESIGN An ecological analysis(More)
OBJECTIVES Washington, District of Columbia has the highest HIV/AIDS rate in the United States, with heterosexual transmission a leading mode of acquisition and African-American women disproportionately affected. The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors driving the emergence of the local epidemic using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data(More)