Shannon Howard

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Evidence from experiments performed in turtle and fish retina suggests that dopamine (DA) modulates the permeability of gap junctions. The present experiment was aimed at determining if DA has a similar role in the mammalian neostriatum. Adults rats received one of four treatments: unilateral electrolytic substantia nigra lesions, unilateral injection of(More)
Expression of the dopamine D3 receptor (D3r) was found in primary mixed glial cultures from newborn brain and in the corpus callosum in vivo during the peak of myelination. Expression of the D3r mRNA, but not D2r mRNA, was detected as early as 5 d in vitro (DIV) by RT-PCR. Immunoblot studies revealed D3r protein was also expressed in the cultures. Double(More)
The opiate antagonist naloxone (NX) alters amphetamine (AMPH) induced behaviors including locomotor activity, rearing and stereotypy. However, the exact nature of the NX induced alteration of AMPH induced behaviors is controversial, with some studies using high (5-40 mg/kg) doses of NX reporting an inhibition, and others using low (< or = 1-2 mg/kg) doses(More)
The cellular localization of the dopaminergic D2 receptor (D2R) mRNA and protein was determined during postnatal development, from birth to 35 days, in the rat neostriatum by in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. To localize and identify more precisely the morphology of cells expressing the D2R mRNA, nonradioactive, digoxigenin in(More)
Because oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are well known contributors to Parkinson disease (PD), we set out to investigate the role mitochondrial JNK plays in the etiology of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurotoxicity in SHSY5Y cells and neuroprotection and motor behavioral protection in(More)
Dose-dependent effects of phencyclidine on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the neostriatum were studied in both urethane-anesthetized and conscious rats. In vivo microdialysis was used to collect 10 min samples that were analyzed for levels of DA, DOPAC and HVA, using high-performance(More)
Amphetamine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the caudate-putamen of adult rats was compared with that in the 35-36-day-old and 21-22-day-old rat pup, using in vivo voltammetry. In the adult and 35-36-day groups, 1.0 mg/kg amphetamine (AMP) produced a significant increase in DA release, while 0.1 mg/kg produced no significant change in DA release. In the(More)
Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is primarily known and used as a relatively specific inhibitor of central DA release. However, it is also widely assumed to be an agonist or prodrug of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its central activity has been attributed to an action exerted at GABA receptors. Nevertheless, there is compelling evidence that: (1) GHB(More)
Haloperidol-induced dopamine (DA) release and metabolism were studied in the rat striatum at 10-11, 21-22, and 35-36 days of age using intracerebral dialysis and HPLC with electrochemical detection. There was an age-related increase in basal DA release and extracellular levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), with the(More)
Changes in extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) following systemic injection of the D1 agonist SKF 38393, 10 mg/kg, the D1 antagonist SCH 23390, 0.5 mg/kg, or the mixed D1/ /D2 agonist apomorphine, 0.05 mg/kg, were monitored in the striatum of developing rats implanted with a dialysis probe.(More)