Shannon Howard

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The stratified inner layer of the embryonic fetal brain, the ventricular zone (VZ), contains glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cell bodies of radial glia. The adult cerebral ventricle is lined by a single layer of cuboidal, ciliated common ependymal cells which are, immunohistologically, GFAP negative. In late gestation, the ventricular lining(More)
In the cerebral lateral ventricle of the human fetus, the embryonic ventricular and subventricular zones (VZ and SVZ) persist into the latter half of gestation, particularly in the lateral wall. The SVZ is usually referred to as the germinal layer at this stage. The VZ is gradually replaced by ependyma, a single epithelial layer composed of tanycytes and(More)
Abnormalities detected by a mechanical sector scanner were compared 'blind' with autopsy findings in the brains of 56 infants born at less than 33 weeks gestation. Intraventricular haemorrhage was found in 53 of 112 hemispheres and had been accurately diagnosed by ultrasound (sensitivity 91 per cent; specificity 81 per cent). Isolated germinal layer(More)
There are currently no drugs to treat neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and all existing medications only treat symptoms, lose efficacy over time, and produce untoward side effects. In the current work, we report the first highly selective, orally bioavailable, c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor for protection of dopaminergic neurons in(More)
Brains from human fetuses of 13 to 27 weeks gestation have been examined immunohistologically for the presence of macrophages using the marker alpha-1-anti-chymotrypsin. A preliminary study demonstrated this to be a satisfactory marker of brain macrophages, although macrophages were also weakly positive for the more specific marker MAC-387. Macrophages were(More)
High-energy, high-charge (HZE) radiation, including iron ions ((56)Fe(26+)), is a component of the space environment. We recently observed a profound loss of trabecular bone in mice after whole-body HZE irradiation. The goal of this study was to examine morphology in bones that were excluded from a (56)Fe(26+) beam used to irradiate the body. Using(More)
Abnormal humoral responses toward motor end plate constituents in muscle induce myasthenia gravis (MG). To study the etiology of this disease, and whether it could be induced by host defense molecules, we examined the consequences of interferon (IFN) "y production within the neuromuscular junction of transgenic mice. The transgenic mice exhibited gradually(More)
The role for c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) in the control of feeding and energy balance is not well understood. Here, by use of novel and highly selective JNK inhibitors, we investigated the actions of JNK in the control of feeding and body weight homeostasis. In lean mice, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of(More)
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