Shannon H Gaffney

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Cobalt (Co) is an essential element in humans as a component of vitamin B12. However, at high levels Co exposure has been shown to have detrimental effects. This study was designed to identify a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) for Co. Currently available data indicate that non-cancer health effects associated with Co exposure may include hematological,(More)
Because crude oil and refined petroleum products can contain benzene and benzene is considered a known carcinogen by numerous independent and governmental agencies, including the International Agency for Cancer Research, the petroleum industry has implemented exposure control programs for decades. As part of the benzene control programs, significant(More)
In this study we evaluated residential location as a potential determinant for exposure to organochlorine compounds. We investigated the geographic distribution characteristics of organochlorine levels in approximately 1,374 blood samples collected in 1974 from residents of a community with a potential organochlorine source. Street addresses of Washington(More)
OBJECTIVES Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and natural gas (0.1-3.0% by volume). Materials that are refined from crude oil and natural gas contain some residual benzene. Few datasets have appeared in the peer-reviewed literature characterizing exposures to benzene at specific refineries or during specific tasks. In this study, historical(More)
Although occupational benzene exposure of refinery workers has been studied for decades, no extensive analysis of historical industrial hygiene data has been performed focusing on airborne concentrations at specific refineries and tasks. This study characterizes benzene exposures at the ExxonMobil Baytown, TX, refinery from 1978 to 2006 to understand the(More)
While petroleum industry studies have indicated low benzene exposure potential for refinery workers, most provide limited data for assessing job or task-related benzene exposures. This study characterizes job and task-specific airborne benzene concentrations and variability over time for the ExxonMobil refinery in Joliet, Illinois from 1977 to 2006. A(More)
An exposure simulation study was conducted to characterize potential formaldehyde exposures of salon workers and clients during keratin hair smoothing treatments. Four different hair treatment brands (Brazilian Blowout, Coppola, Global Keratin, and La Brasiliana) were applied to separate human hair wigs mounted on mannequin heads. Short-term (6-16 min) and(More)
Asbestos-containing brake linings were used in heavy-duty construction equipment such as tractors, backhoes, and bulldozers prior to the 1980s. While several published studies have evaluated exposures to mechanics during brake repair work, most have focused on automobiles and light trucks, not on heavy agricultural or construction vehicles. The purpose of(More)
Workplace air samples analyzed for benzene at four US refineries from 1976 to 2007 were pooled into a single dataset to characterize similarities and differences between job titles, tasks and refineries, and to provide a robust dataset for exposure reconstruction. Approximately 12,000 non-task (>180 min) personal samples associated with 50 job titles and(More)
OBJECTIVES Setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for odorous or irritating chemicals is a global occupational health challenge. However, often there is inadequate knowledge about the toxicology of these chemicals to set an OEL and their irritation potencies are usually not recognized until they are manufactured or used in large quantities. METHODS(More)