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OBJECTIVES Setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for odorous or irritating chemicals is a global occupational health challenge. However, often there is inadequate knowledge about the toxicology of these chemicals to set an OEL and their irritation potencies are usually not recognized until they are manufactured or used in large quantities. METHODS(More)
Asbestos-containing brake linings were used in heavy-duty construction equipment such as tractors, backhoes, and bulldozers prior to the 1980s. While several published studies have evaluated exposures to mechanics during brake repair work, most have focused on automobiles and light trucks, not on heavy agricultural or construction vehicles. The purpose of(More)
OBJECTIVES Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and natural gas (0.1-3.0% by volume). Materials that are refined from crude oil and natural gas contain some residual benzene. Few datasets have appeared in the peer-reviewed literature characterizing exposures to benzene at specific refineries or during specific tasks. In this study, historical(More)
Soluble cobalt (Co) supplements with recommended daily doses up to 1000 μg Co/day are increasingly being marketed to consumers interested in healthy living practices. For example, some athletes may consider using Co supplements as blood doping agents, as Co is known to stimulate erythropoesis. However, the distribution and excretion kinetics of ingested Co(More)
Because crude oil and refined petroleum products can contain benzene and benzene is considered a known carcinogen by numerous independent and governmental agencies, including the International Agency for Cancer Research, the petroleum industry has implemented exposure control programs for decades. As part of the benzene control programs, significant(More)
While petroleum industry studies have indicated low benzene exposure potential for refinery workers, most provide limited data for assessing job or task-related benzene exposures. This study characterizes job and task-specific airborne benzene concentrations and variability over time for the ExxonMobil refinery in Joliet, Illinois from 1977 to 2006. A(More)
Because crude oil contains up to 3% benzene and there is an association between high chronic exposure to appreciable concentrations of benzene and acute myelogenous leukemia, exposure of refinery workers has been studied for many years. To date, no extensive industrial hygiene exposure analyses for historical benzene exposure have been performed, and none(More)
OBJECTIVE This paper reviews current research regarding the relationship between odor perception or irritation and setting an occupational exposure limit (OEL). Special focus was directed at those settings where a small fraction of persons report unacceptable responses to concentrations well below the OEL. METHODS We evaluated the published literature on(More)
Although occupational benzene exposure of refinery workers has been studied for decades, no extensive analysis of historical industrial hygiene data has been performed focusing on airborne concentrations at specific refineries and tasks. This study characterizes benzene exposures at the ExxonMobil Baytown, TX, refinery from 1978 to 2006 to understand the(More)