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Asbestos-containing brake linings were used in heavy-duty construction equipment such as tractors, backhoes, and bulldozers prior to the 1980s. While several published studies have evaluated exposures to mechanics during brake repair work, most have focused on automobiles and light trucks, not on heavy agricultural or construction vehicles. The purpose of(More)
OBJECTIVE This paper reviews current research regarding the relationship between odor perception or irritation and setting an occupational exposure limit (OEL). Special focus was directed at those settings where a small fraction of persons report unacceptable responses to concentrations well below the OEL. METHODS We evaluated the published literature on(More)
Cobalt (Co) is an essential element in humans as a component of vitamin B12. However, at high levels Co exposure has been shown to have detrimental effects. This study was designed to identify a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) for Co. Currently available data indicate that non-cancer health effects associated with Co exposure may include hematological,(More)
Soluble cobalt (Co) supplements with recommended daily doses up to 1000 μg Co/day are increasingly being marketed to consumers interested in healthy living practices. For example, some athletes may consider using Co supplements as blood doping agents, as Co is known to stimulate erythropoesis. However, the distribution and excretion kinetics of ingested Co(More)
Exposure reconstruction for substances of interest to human health is a process that has been used, with various levels of sophistication, as far back as the 1930s. The importance of robust and high-quality exposure reconstruction has been recognized by many researchers. It has been noted that misclassification of reconstructed exposures is relatively(More)
OBJECTIVES Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and natural gas (0.1-3.0% by volume). Materials that are refined from crude oil and natural gas contain some residual benzene. Few datasets have appeared in the peer-reviewed literature characterizing exposures to benzene at specific refineries or during specific tasks. In this study, historical(More)
The concept of sustainability evolved throughout the 1970s and 1980s, but was formally described by the 27 principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development in 1992. Despite the passage of nearly 20years, to date there are no uniform set of federal rules, regulations, or guidelines specifically governing the environmental aspects of(More)
Copper beryllium alloys are the most commonly used form of beryllium; however, there have been few studies assessing occupational exposure in facilities that worked exclusively with this alloy versus those where pure metal or beryllium oxide may also have been present. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne beryllium concentrations at a machining plant(More)
Because crude oil and refined petroleum products can contain benzene and benzene is considered a known carcinogen by numerous independent and governmental agencies, including the International Agency for Cancer Research, the petroleum industry has implemented exposure control programs for decades. As part of the benzene control programs, significant(More)