Shannon Elizabeth Scratch

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Environmental, dietary, and gastrointestinal factors may contribute to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Propionic acid (PPA) is a short chain fatty acid, a metabolic end-product of enteric bacteria in the gut, and a common food preservative. Recent evidence indicates that PPA can cause behavioral abnormalities and a neuroinflammatory response in rats.(More)
Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes(More)
Using magnetic resonance imaging, this study compared hippocampal volume between 145 very preterm children and 34 children born full-term at 7 years of age. The relationship between hippocampal volume and memory and learning impairments at 7 years was also investigated. Manual hippocampal segmentation and subsequent three-dimensional volumetric analysis(More)
Preterm birth (PT) and low birthweight (LBW) are risk factors for cognitive, academic, and behavioral difficulties. Executive functioning, which is an umbrella term encompassing higher-order problem-solving and goal-oriented abilities, may help to understand these impairments. This review article examines executive functioning in PT and LBW children, with a(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during childhood on brain morphology and function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients aged 6-18 years with and without DKA at diagnosis were studied at four time points: <48 h, 5 days, 28 days, and 6 months postdiagnosis. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine attention and processing speed outcomes in very preterm (VPT; < 32 weeks' gestational age) or very low birth weight (VLBW; < 1,500 g) children, and to determine whether brain abnormality measured by neonatal MRI can be used to predict outcome in these domains. METHOD A cohort of 198 children born < 30 weeks'(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks) birth and extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) are risk factors for poor cognitive outcomes, including in executive function (EF; higher-order cognitive skills necessary for goal-directed, adaptive functioning and important for academic and behavioral-emotional outcomes). We aimed to (1)(More)
BACKGROUND Screening tests of basic cognitive status or 'mental state' have been shown to predict mortality and functional outcomes in adults. This study examined the relationship between mental state and outcomes in children with type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine whether mental state at diagnosis predicts longer term cognitive function of(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Preterm infants commonly have transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity after birth, which has been associated with deficits in general intellectual functioning, memory, attention, and academic achievement. However, research has predominantly focused on thyroxine levels in the first 2 weeks of life and outcomes are limited to the(More)
We evaluated a cognitive behaviour therapy-based programme to improve glycaemic control and psychosocial wellbeing in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. A total of 147 adolescents aged 13-16 years were randomized to the intervention (n = 73) or standard care (n = 74). The primary outcome was glycaemic control at 3 and 12 months post randomization, and(More)