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The cause and mechanism of neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown. There is also controversy about whether the cell death results from a single event followed by cell loss consistent with aging or whether there is an ongoing pathologic process. Using postmortem tissue obtained from the Parkinson's(More)
Growth/differentiation factor 5 is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, which has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Here we investigate the effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 on foetal mesencephalic grafts transplanted into a rat model of Parkinson's disease, and(More)
Growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), a novel member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurones in vitro. We present here the first evidence for a neuroprotective action of GDF5 in vivo. We investigated the effects of intracerebral administration of GDF5 on a rat model of Parkinson's disease. GDF5(More)
The effect of increasing delay on the metrics of remembered saccades was studied in 10 subjects with mild Parkinson's disease, none of whom was receiving treatment with L-dopa, and nine age-matched control subjects. Delays of 1 msec, 250 msec, 1000 msec, 2500 msec, and 5000 msec were used, and reflexive saccades used as a control condition. Results were(More)
Two patients with presumed encephalitis lethargica are presented with clinical features suggestive of two forms of the disease described by Von Economo: One patient had a psychosis and a mute-akinetic syndrome associated with myoclonus. The second patient presented with a psychosis and fever, developing severe dyskinesias involving the mouth, trunk and(More)
This study focused on the early neurochemical events involved in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxicity and the putative neuroprotective effects of pergolide. 6-OHDA in 0.1% ascorbic acid/saline was delivered into rat striatum by means of microdialysis and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) was measured as an index of hydroxyl free radical formation(More)
Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to enhance the survival of dopaminergic neurones both in vitro and in vivo, and to protect the rodent dopaminergic system from neurotoxic damage. However, most previous studies have only examined the short-term protective effects of GDNF. We have investigated the long-term effects of GDNF on(More)
We have investigated whether glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects against a complete unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) nigrostriatal lesion, a robust rat model of Parkinson's disease. GDNF or vehicle were administered above the rat substantia nigra and into the lateral ventricle immediately before an ipsilateral 6-OHDA injection(More)
Growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is a neurotrophin which protects the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced damage. Here we used amphetamine-induced rotational testing, high-performance liquid chromatography and immunocytochemistry to investigate the minimum effective dose of GDF5. We also compared the effectiveness of(More)
Ever since the introduction of levo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, there has been concern that it might accelerate the degeneration of dopamine neurones. Using rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), we have studied the effect of chronic L-dopa treatment on(More)