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Editing of the human genome to correct disease-causing mutations is a promising approach for the treatment of genetic disorders. Genome editing improves on simple gene-replacement strategies by effecting in situ correction of a mutant gene, thus restoring normal gene function under the control of endogenous regulatory elements and reducing risks associated(More)
In a clinical study of recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 expressing human factor IX (AAV2-FIX), we detected 2 impediments to long-term gene transfer. First, preexisting anti-AAV neutralizing antibodies (NABs) prevent vector from reaching the target tissue, and second, CD8(+) T-cell responses to hepatocyte-cell surface displayed AAV-capsid-terminated FIX(More)
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are effective gene delivery vehicles mediating long-lasting transgene expression. Data from a clinical trial of AAV2-mediated hepatic transfer of the Factor IX gene (F9) into hemophilia B subjects suggests that CTL responses against AAV capsid can eliminate transduced hepatocytes and prevent long-term F9 expression.(More)
Choroideremia (CHM) is an X- linked retinal degeneration that is symptomatic in the 1(st) or 2(nd) decade of life causing nyctalopia and loss of peripheral vision. The disease progresses through mid-life, when most patients become blind. CHM is a favorable target for gene augmentation therapy, as the disease is due to loss of function of a protein necessary(More)
We report the generation and use of pseudotyped adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for the liver-specific expression of human blood coagulation factor IX (hFIX). Therefore, an AAV-2 genome encoding the hfIX gene was cross-packaged into capsids of AAV types 1 to 6 using efficient, large-scale technology for particle production and purification. In(More)
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer of factor IX (F.IX) to the liver results in long-term expression of transgene in experimental animals, but only short-term expression in humans. Loss of F.IX expression is likely due to a cytotoxic immune response to the AAV capsid, which results in clearance of transduced hepatocytes. We used a nonhuman(More)
Hemophilia A, a deficiency of functional coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), is treated via protein replacement therapy. Restoring 1% to 5% of normal blood FVIII activity prevents spontaneous bleeding, making the disease an attractive gene therapy target. Previously, we have demonstrated short-term activity of a liver-specific AAV2 vector expressing canine(More)
We have previously shown that adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) undergoes anterograde axonal transport in rat and non-human primate brain. We screened other AAV serotypes for axonal transport and found that AAV6 is transported almost exclusively in a retrograde direction and, in the same way as AAV2, it is also neuron-specific in rat brain. Our findings(More)
Inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) are a major complication in the treatment of hemophilia A, affecting approximately 20% to 30% of patients. Current treatment for inhibitors is based on long-term, daily injections of large amounts of FVIII protein. Liver-directed gene therapy has been used to induce antigen-specific tolerance, but there are no(More)